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HI109 (96)

5 The Impact of the Great War

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Alicia Mc Kenzie

January 23, 2014 1 THE IMPACT OF THE GREAT WAR Propaganda and pressure increases its power over individual citizens - Eg. White rose campaign o White rose to any man (by women) not in uniform (mark of cowardice) Geopolitical impact Domestic politics Social impact GEOPOLITICAL IMPACT The collapse of empires - Those who are defeated militarily collapse - Those that survive o New basis for people to have national self-determination o Indians would be British (so it applies only to Europeans) The European Balance of Power Even though 1918 Germany is defeated, it is far stronger militarily in position in 1919 than 1914 - Russia no longer an issue - Poland separates Germany from Russia The Global Balance of Power - United States o End of WWI creates navy larger than royal navy  Britain cannot keep up economically - Japan o Can also not afford to compete with US naval strength THE COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES Ottoman Empire - Removed from the map o Becomes modern republic of Turkey January 23, 2014 2 o Palestine, Iraq (other eastern nations) split between British and French influence  In theory they aren’t colonies  Imperial powers are babysitters • Really they control them + natural resources (esp. oil) British promise Jews homeland in Palestine - Problems into modernity due to this problem Russian Empire - Removed from international scene for years o They are disliked for Bolshevik regime  They published embarrassing docs about other powers from war  Refused to pay the debts of the old imperial regime • Don’t pay Czars debts - Pushing revolution (offensive to world leaders, obviously) Austro-Hungarian Empire - German-speaking Austria (republican) reduced to - Czechoslovakia formed from Czechs and Slavs - Yugoslavia formed (incl. Slovenia) German Empire - Economically in the best position - Militarily quite powerful as well THE EUROPEANS BALANCE OF POWER Austria-Hungary is gone Russia gone for a decade (civil war) - No substitute for absence of Russia Ottoman Empire has no power New unstable states Significant anti-Semitism in Poland and Czechoslovakia January 23, 2014 3 Yugoslavia - Orthodox serbs - Catholic croations - Slovenians - Bosnians - Albanians o Different nationalities in conflict constantly  Just trying to hold country together Eastern Europe has been divided up so greatly that there is no major power that can dominate - Extremely vulnerable THE GLOBAL BALANCE OF POWER WWI a global war - Japan sent naval forces in Mediterranean to escort allied ships - Britain also fighting in middle east (British Indian Empire) o Destroys Ottoman Empire - Americans 1917 involved in war Naval power - US world second largest navy - Japan becomes very strong o Japan - Britain appeasement o If Britain problems in Mediterranean the also have problems in red sea and Germany simultaneously  Can’t handle all the powers Future challenges - Germany’s new situation o Hard for any power to halt - Integrating soviet union into international order January 23, 2014 4 o Economically devastated  Seeking respectability in the west - National self-determination o Majority of citizens belong to a national group and live in a national territorial state  Pockets of Germans throughout eastern Europe
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