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HI109 (96)

8 Return to Normalcy

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Alicia Mc Kenzie

RETURN TO “NORMALCY” France in a bad neighbourhood - 40 mil vs Germany’s 60+ mil DEMOBILIZATION AND BROADENING THE STATE 1920’s even traditionally laissez faire liberal systems like Britain put restrictions on labour - State power to restrain business and foster well-being for more citizens o Without much success The legacy of the war - Price and wage controls o Rations - Propaganda to convince society it is their duty to support the state - Conscription The regulatory state Can’t go back to the way it was pre war - New unionism - France 40hr work week Greater concentration of wealth - Excess and poverty - Areas that had been very prosperous did not always recover to former glory - New cartels New republicanism - Destruction of old empires and monarchies - Writing new constitutions throughout Europe - Greater democracy for most Europeans Widening of the franchise - E.G. Prussia 3 class voting system o Now one citizen one vote - Women gain the right to vote across most of Europe - Real effective democracy for the first time for many Socialism tamed? Division between evolutionary and revolutionary socialism - Socialism becomes respectable as reformers using power of the state o Trying to make life better for the majority of Europeans  Conservatives also can vote against them  Not through violence - Labour party in Germany win in 1930’s and put forward some reforms POLITICS Britain: a 3 way democracy Labour and conservative parties form a coalition in 1930’s economic crisis - Put aside differences to deal w/ crises France toward the end of the moderate left - Moderate leftist coalition - Like in Britain, cooperation across parties during great depression - Problem of debt to anglo-american creditors o Need to extract funds from Germany  Germany determined not to accept Treaty of Versailles Germany and Weimar democracy - Running from outside of Berlin - Tsar abdicates and Weimar left with responsibility of negotiating the Treaty of Versailles - Weakness of regime; temporary stability o Regime’s legitimacy questioned Eastern Europe - Republicanism vs authoritarianism - Old economic relationships betweenAH are fractured from independence - Ethnic minorities pushing for rights in these states Italy and the far right - Shift towards fascism and authoritarianism 1920’s REHABILITATION OF THE Failure of Coercion - Trying to use blunt military power to extract concessions from Germany fails miserably - 1923 France occupies Ruhr valley to extract the coal themselves o German gov’t embarks on bank notes + inflation in Germany - France seen as the bully by Britain and other European powers New respectability in Germany - Working with Versailles within international order o Need some revision
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