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Lecture

9 Facsism

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Department
History
Course
HI109
Professor
Alicia Mc Kenzie
Semester
Winter

Description
FASCISM February 11, 2014 INTELLECTUALANTECEDENTS 19 CENTURY NATIONALISM Racial nation states despite religious differences Debate between nationalism and liberalism Nationalism formed by conservatives (force) = authoritarian Germany Liberals ideas left behind in favour of state power Feelings of insecurity RACISM AND RACIAL “SCIENCE” Darwinism distorted Idea that natural selection applies to races and individual communities Eugenics and worries of degeneration Improved health care - Healthy young men essential to the defense of British Empire Eugenics - Idea that people need to be weeded out from the gene pool in order to protect humanity in the long run ANTI-INTELLECTUAL NIHILISM Rejection of reason and rationalism Mien Kamft - No rational argument - Simple, not organized Impatience with intellectualism University professors talk badly about Hitler in class - Students in back (brown shirts) throw things at them or beat them up End of individualism REPLACING CLASS WITH NATIONS Connected to anti-Semitism 2 - Nazis blame Jews for the failing economy and communism - Dealing with racial enemies and national enemies o Inside and outside the country TRADITIONAL RELIGION Religion as a recruiting tool Traditional views on morality between Church and Nazis - Women in the house and childbearing Disagreement especially with Christianity Nazis do not agree with “Love thy neighbor as love thy self” - Nazis willing to use aggression - Nazis try not to emphasize qualms with the Church until their power is certain PERCIEVED CRISES OF LIBERALISM FAILURE OF PARLIAMENTS Economic recovery - Many jobless people o Even in prosperous areas - Economic revival in 1920’s and 30’s o Only for untraditional areas  Automobiles, consumer supplies  Not coal etc. No international trade Failure of traditional policies Cutting taxes is too passive for the extreme situation SPLIT ELECTORATES Ideological division between international socialism and surrendering of private ownership 3 Political dithering - Inability to form a majority gov’t o Failure to fulfill needs of the people o Some see as the need to do away with liberal democracy altogether  Think about authoritarianism THREAT OF SOVIET COMMUNISM Fear of socialist revolutions - Combined with racial differences creates fear DISCONTENTAFTER 1918 ECONOMIC DISLOCATION Rebellion of the middle class People who have a house, profession, and investments not interested in socialism - Middle class feels anxious and are willing to sacrifice civil freedoms to get security People feel patriotic - Communist and socialists taking orders from Moscow - Conflicts with patriotic ideology NATIONAL SELF-PITY Blaming others - External and internal enemies o EG. Propaganda that Germany defeated due to socialism, not on the field of battle MIDDLE CLASS SUPPORT 90% of German boys belong to the Hitler youth Small businessmen and big businesses - Form the basis for Fascist support 4 - Afraid of socialism and small business owners afraid of big business o Many large businesses owned by Jews o Jews overrepresented in professional fields Internal separation Non-Jewish Germans feel like they are being sidelined - Things are bad when the middle class starts revolting CHALLENGING THE LIBER
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