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McCarthyism [2] Loyalty, Hollywood and Spies Trumans Loyalty-Security Program HUAC and Hollywood Spy Fever

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Darren Mulloy

HI114 October 19 [In Lecture] McCARTHYISM [2] LOYALTY, HOLLYWOOD AND SPES A) Truman’s Loyalty-Security Program • executive order 9835 (March 25, 1947) • Federal Employee’s Loyalty Program, to go into effect in October • Not the first time: WW1 - 600 denied work in 1918 • • WW2 100 lost government jobs + 30 resigned • Truman’s loyalty program was much more extensive than previous loyalty program, the most extensive in American history. This is during peace times. • • argued that this loyalty program did more than any other single government action to instigate the second red scare The Programme: • • new and existing employees • you would be subject to a loyalty check, your past would be scrutinized, any past employment, school, ANYTHING everyone is subject • • Loyalty board and a loyalty review board • seems fair, you can bring a lawyer, you can attend the hearing, you can appeal the decision. AT FACE VALUE SEEMS FAIR • IN PRACTICE • ANONYMOUS ACCUSERS • (encouraged people to come forward) • you wouldn’t necessarily know what you were being accused of. • anonymous accusers, general statement how can you defend yourself? • WIDE STANDARDS FOR DISMISSAL (GUILT BY ASSOCIATION) • Part V of EO9835: “reasonable grounds … disloyal to the Government of the United States” • sympathetic association - ANY association, • PAST ASSOCIATIONS - even if you are no longer associated • deliberately ruined peoples lives, it was unlikely that anyone “disloyal” could get another job • POWER OF SECURITY OFFICERS - feared, had enormous power HI114 • RETENTION OF INFORMATION AND SUBSEQUENT INVESTIGATIONS Promotions/transfers, grounds for another investigation • • Changing of the rules • eg. EO 10241 (April 28, 1951) • under this new executive order, there had to be reasonable doubt about your loyalty • changes the burden of truth, YOU HAVE TO PROVE YOUR LOYALTY • much harder burden to pass • ATTORNEY GENERAL’S LIST • his power decides, if you are on his list, you cannot get of it • David Caute - “the most sinister and destructive departure of post-war american politics” • 1 in 5 workers in entire workforce • Federal Civil Service: • 2,700 civilian dismissals • 12, 000 resignations (1947-1956) WHY TRUMAN DID IT 1. Genuine concern about national security • 1946 Gallup poll: • 36% “harsh” measures (get rid of them, deport them, kail them, shoot them) • 69% deny communists government jobs • 61% outlaw the CP • 1948 • 77% require communists register with the government 2. Pressure of the Republican party at home • wants to show he’s not soft on communism like the republicans say 3. Support for the Truman Doctrine Abroad • tie the foreign and domestic policies together, encourage people to support the Truman Doc abroad • you have to fight communism at home and abroad B) HUAC and Hollywood Why Hollywood? 1. Communist Presence • communist members and sympathizers 2. Film Content • ie. Mission to Moscow, Song of Russia
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