Class Notes (835,929)
Canada (509,507)
History (510)
HI114 (16)

HI114 – VIETNAM WAR.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Robert Davison

HI114 – VIETNAM WAR The early years – from Truman to Kennedy The Vietnam War (1954 – 1975) – Key Controversies - The draft - Long - Failed - Domestically divisive - Bloody: o 58,000 Americans Killed o 153,000 injured o 4 million Vietnamese soldiers/ civilians killed o (10% of the population) A) The French Roots of America’s War - 1867 Vietnam colonized - Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia = French Indochina - French create very repressive system of government - Ho Chi Minh (1890 –1969) - When he was 21, left Vietnam to travel world, during second world war, ends up in Versailles, argues for Vietnamese independence - Ho becomes a communist - 1940 – 1941 Vietnam occupied by Japan - 1941 Viet Minh organized - Aug 1945 Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) established - March 1946 France and Viet Minh “compromise” – DRV = free state. In French Union. French military occupation of northern Vietnam - Dec 1946 First Indochina war (fighting from Haiphong to Hanoi) - French able to control cities, but Viet minh have large control over country and how it develops - 1948 emperor bao dai installed by French – lobbying for US support - feb 1950 president Truman recognized bao dai + increases aid - $2bn (1945 – 54) frances total expenditure = $5bn) - military assistance advisory group (300 military advisors in 1954) What to do? Admiral Arthur radford – night attacks on the Viet Minh + tactical nuclear weapons Matthew ridgeway – intervention = a hare brained scheme International action Support from congress? No appetite within congress for taking the fight within Vietnam even April 1954 Geneva meetings French surrender at Dien Bien Phu + Viet Minh control 2/3rds of Vietnam Geneva arguments (july 20) - Vietnam divided at the 17 parallel - French troops withdraw below the 17 parallel - No military alliances or foreign bases - National elections for 1956 and reunification - Plus elections in Laos and Cambodia - The US Response - Refuse to support Geneva arguments - Establish SEATO (sept 1954) [Britain, France, Pakistan, Phillipines, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand] - All say they will support Americans in Vietnam (only Australia Thailand and new Zealand send troops) - Back Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem - Increase military advisors (685 by 1961) - Increase economic aid - Replace bao dai with diem 1955 – 1958 - Diem rejects North Vietnam proposals for talks on 1956 elections - (Supported by Eisenhower) - but diem and Eisenhower realized if there is a referendum, ho chi minh will win - so they reject this and refuse to allow it to take place - Referendum in South instead - Diem “wins” 98% of vote = president of republic of Vietnam (RVN) fake - No one wins that many votes - US aid = $300m per year (80% for military purposes) - “Denunciation of communists” campaign (20,000 – 30,000 suspected communist jailed) - South Vietnam’s troops = army of republic of Vietnam (ARVN) - December 1960 creation of National liberation Front (NLF) C) John F Kennedy’s War 1961 – 1963 - Eisenhower and kennedy did not see it as a civil war, saw it through lens of cold war - Communist on one side, western democracies on other side - When they looked at it, communist bad – western democracy good. We need to stop communism - Kennedy administration was young, energetic Kennedy’s Cold war warriors - Mcgeorge Bundy, special assistant for national security affairs secretary of defense, Robert McNamara, secretary of state, Dean Rusk Expanding US presence in Vietnam - Jan 61 $28.4m to enlarge ARVN - $12.7m to improve civil guard - May 61 400 special forces soldiers + 100 more military “advisors” - Oct 61 “fact finding” mission of general Maxwell Taylor and Walt Rostow Taylor and Rostow recommendations: - 8,000 combat troops? - US helicopters? – Sends helicopters only. Doesn’t think the other measures are necessary yet and does not see situation as badly as it is - Bomb North Vietnam? - Or - A negotiated Settlement? Nov 1961 - More “advisors” - 61 = 3,205 - 62 = 11,000 - 63 = 16,700 - Plus - Helicopters, minesweepers, and reconnaissance aircraft - Napalm - Operation RANCHHAND = defoliation program - Strategic Hamlet Program – instituted run by diem’s brother - 1961 – 63 - protests against Diem Increase May 1963 - shooting of 9 Buddhist monks in Hue June 1963 - A Buddhist sets himself on fire and covers himself in gasoline What to do with Diem? - Stick with him – McNamara, Lyndon Johnson, CIA director John McCone
More Less

Related notes for HI114

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.