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Jan 29 Lecture W&S in Africa.pdf

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David Olivier

War and Society in Africa Notes January 29, 2013 Theme of when Europeans start moving into Africa and important events that mark encroachment into Africa.▯ ▯ LECTURE:▯ • Southern Africa has seen the most amount of European Contract until they move inwards. ▯ • The original Europeans settlers the Boers by 1800 there were 20,000 of them.▯ • Once the British assume control of the territory from 1806 onwards. They encourage colonization from England. In 1820s 10,000 British colonists arrive. Boers feel over whelmed they do not want to be under English control. They are seen as an occupying power, taking Boer territory.▯ • Difference from British and Boers view the land that is available is Southern Africa▯ • British: land is perfect for commercial speculation. How much money they can make from it, not interested in settling down unless they can exploit a resource.▯ • Boers: Farmers! Want the land for agriculture. Believe that they have a firmer connection to the land. They care more about the land than the British. Want it for agriculture and for settling.▯ The influx of British settlers is bad and the administration favors British over the • Boers▯ • They do not identify with the British or the African natives but they regard themselves as people of Africa.▯ • Boers regard themselves as superior, not the same as Mennonites or Amish. Of a similar background that is united by religion and views themselves as agriculturists and are better than African Natives. Problematic with the views of the British. When it is solved it is not the traditional solution. ▯ • From 1835-7 the Boers move further inland and to the East the Boers move. ▯ The Zulu had also expanded their land but it was also depopulated because many • people had fled from the Zulu. ▯ • They are in competition for the same territories and the Boers take half of the Zulus concurred lands they set up 3 territories▯ 1. Natal▯ • Is on the coast. ▯ • The British were not happy. The lifeline to India was to sail ships around Africa and worried about anyone else having portions of the coast.▯ • 1843 taken over by British. ▯ 2. Transvaal▯ • Inland and the British do not worry about them▯ 3. The Orange Free State▯ • Inland and the British do not worry about them▯ • The ran into conflict with the Zulu as the moved farther inland.▯ ▯ War and Society in Africa Notes January 29, 2013 • The British by the middle of the century they peruse very extensive expansion policies and run into another Native group called Xhosa.▯ • Their methods to gain control over the Xhosa are▯ • Expand the influence if missionaries (Anglican or nonconformist)▯ • They are trying to turn them into copies of Europeans. “Teach them the right things to do”▯ • Wear more clothes! As well as cleanliness (British standards)▯ • Change the rolls of the people in their society.▯ •Men Hunted and went away from home▯ Women: grew crops▯ • • Europeans were against this thought the men thought they should be doing the crops and a clash of cultural values. ▯ • The reason why the Xhosa were vulnerable is because they were one of the groups that lost their lands to the Zulu expansion. To make matters worse they were victims of their own misfortune in the 1850s there was a story that they needed to slaughter their cattle and burn their crops and they would be looked after and the Europeans would never bother them again. So they did and the prophecy did not come through and they starved. ▯ • They only way that they can survive is to become wage laborers. Initially working on the farms set up by the British settlers. ▯ • Then in the 1860s & 70s this is the discovery of diamonds and gold. Potentially fabulous sources of wealth but takes work. More of the Xhosa and other tribes in similar situations are being brought on to work in diamond mines and gold fields. ▯ This leaves some of the British population worried about the Africans rebellions.▯ • • The government introduces a method of control through pass cards which identifies who the African is and where he is living and working. ▯ • An African found in a region that his pass card does not authorized to be in is in trouble and an African found without the pass card they are in trouble.▯ • All three groups in this area are aware about the resources in the area▯ • The Zulu to remain one of the main players, from the 1860s they were buying more firearms. More modern weapons to stave off Boer and British moving to their territory▯ • 1870s is a lack of stability in their leadership and have a contest to see who will win. ▯ • Cetshwayo was building up his sto
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