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March 26 War and Society in Africa Lecture.pdf

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David Olivier

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War and Society in Africa March 26 Lecture▯ ▯ 1910 Union of South Africa is Created▯ ▯ Amalgamation of Boer Republics and Southern Regions▯ ▯ The Majority of the population in this territory of South Africa are:▯ • Blacks▯ • Xhosa ▯ • Zulu▯ ▯ 4 Categories of People that wind up being created as categories and South African government maintains approaches to policy and law to the 4 categories that the person belongs to.▯ 1. Whites▯ 2. Blacks ▯ 3. Coloreds (mix raced ancestry)▯ 4. Indians (people from India)▯ ▯ Before the creation of the Union of South Africa. ▯ • The British colonies had allowed limited voting rights to non-rights (the other 3 groups). ▯ • The Boers never had these kinds of rights and were not interested in having these rights and they were not forced to accept the expansion of the limited rights. ▯ ▯ There are some people that are opposed to this policy of not expanding rights to non- rights. African Nation Congress (1922) did not like this. ▯ ▯ ANC▯ • Expresses opposition of racial policy in passive resistance like Gandhi and used similar methods.▯ ▯ South African Politics 1910-45▯ • Three things happen in South Africa▯ 1. The Afrikaners (Boers) - they gain political power. ▯ 2. The rights of non-whites are steadily reduced (lessing their rights). Property rights - 78% of population has the right to own 7% of the land▯ 3. Significant economic growth in South Africa in thanks to 3 elements▯ 1. South Africa is Rich in mineral wealth ▯ 2. Also has a large agricultural section - able to produce enough crops that there is surplus for exports. ▯ 3. Because of all the restrictions being places on non-whites they have a cheap labour force. Because the south African economy is working so well there are migrant workers coming in from other countries. ▯ Estimated that the economy grew in an average of 7% annually for 64 years (1910-1974)▯ ▯ Rhodesia ▯ • Founded as a colony under the British South African Company ▯ • Once again there is exploitation being conducted by the BSAC for cheap labour for the plantations and the mines, they taxed the natives and forced them to work in these places to pay the taxes▯ • 1923 - the company charter expires and a decision needs to be made about the ruling.▯ • Their option was to join South Africa or becoming a self governing colony▯ • They chose self governing▯ • Land owners for natives was serverly restricted. ▯ • The White minority (5%) got half of the land▯ • WWII - Rhodesia is a British colony and the white minority is ruling, member of the common wealth and placing restrictions on the black majority ▯ Economy - Boom in the demand for the Tobacco exports, whites come into the • country to farm tobacco. ▯ ▯ Portuguese government refuses to give up their colonies and sees them as a province. ▯ ▯ Apartheid ( AKA Apartness)▯ • After WWII they are at a cross roads in South Africa run by SMUTS super old guy.▯ • The government is trying to figure out where their racial policies fit in terms of economic growth and they are studying things and make recommendations to what policies they should adopt.▯ • The commission comes back that they re doing more harm that good with all of the restrictions on the majority of the population, if they are lifted there will be an explosion in the African economy. ▯ • This was courageous because it goes against the mood and the majority have no interest in ending segregation. There are many groups that are anti-semetic and pro-nazi and they are looking towards Hitler and feel they were right. ▯ • Lifting restrictions is appalling to them and the opposing nationalist policy creates their own commission and says they should adopt apartheid ▯ • In 1948 there is an election and smuts is voted out and the nationalists are voted in and remain in power until 1994 until the end of the Apartheid and they adopt policies and implement laws that are designed to segregate South Africa as much as possible.▯ • These policies are designed to entrench white minority control ▯ Had the south African government been able to set up their policies they would • have installed HOMELANDS▯ • These are the territories were Black Africans are to live and these are their homelands, and they should live there. If they need to work they should commute. ▯ • They were only able to implement some of this ▯ • The idea was that every working black south African was considered a temporary migrant worker ▯ • Their movements were controlled - when they hit 16 they are issued a pass card that identifies them by race and puts certain limitations on where they can go and when they can be there. ▯ In practice this HOMELAND idea was impossible and there were townships would be • created along side of the white cities.▯ •Most famous one is called Soweto by Johannesburg ▯ • Apartheid was designed to cover everything▯ •Different education systems▯ •Laws passes that forbid interracial marriage and interracial sexual contact▯ •Some of these social laws are direct copies of Nuremberg laws that were designed to segregate the jews from German societies.▯ •Simple things too▯ • Public Washrooms: Whites, Blacks or Coloreds ONLY▯ • Public Drinking Fountains▯ • These took years to segregate the different races from one another ▯ • Many of the whites supported the Apartheid and others disagreed ▯ • There was opposition from other areas. ▯ • With aptheid there is change in the opposition ▯ • Late 1940’s new generation coming through the ranks of the ANC saying that things are getting worse and they want the ANC to be more militant ▯ ▯ ANC Leaders▯ Oliver Tombo and Nelson Mendella - leaving passive resistance behind and adopting civil disobedience. ▯ ▯ 1955 - the Freedom Charter▯ •An Amalgamation of a number of groups including the ANC, liberal elements of the white populations, coloreds and Indians.▯ •This was to express the opposition to Apartheid and they were all equal. ▯ •The government’s response was a heavy hand of the state. Mass arrests, greater restrictions placed on opposition groups,.▯ ▯ The opposition’s reponse to the government was to have more radical action this is the PAC.▯ ▯ March 1960 the PAC▯ Has a rally in Sharpeville and police open fire on the protestors ▯ • •The government cracks down more and outlaw ANC and PAC and arrest over 18,000 peop
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