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March 21, Lectire.pdf

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David Olivier

War and Society in Africa Lecture: March 21, 2013 ▯ Fighting for the Control of the Congo▯ ▯ Both Kasavubu and Laumuba Sided with Soviet Unions▯ ▯ UN faced with difficult situation, must appear as if they are not taking sides in the congo and in the cold war.▯ ▯ They quickly did 2 things▯ Served to make the locals more angry with the UN but they also helped to localize the 1. They took control over the countries radio station broadcasting out.▯ Lamumba’s faction is north of Congo but he is in the capital. He was using the • radio to make orders to his faction. This eliminated that source of conflict.▯▯ 2. Took control over the country’s airports▯ 1. Prevents Lumumba having his faction to fly into the capital and launch a coup ▯ 2. Lamumbas people have been recicving arms shipments from the Soviet Union. This stopped the flow of soviet arms to this faction▯ ▯ We can argue that the UN has ensured to make the issue localized and prevent open fighting and making it worse. On the other hand we can say that they is a prowestern bias on this issue. ▯ ▯ The problem is even with these steps it is impossible to prevent some fighting between the various factions. ▯ ▯ There is another player to this Joseph Mobutu ▯ • Mobutu was in the Army▯ • When independence was achieved he was promoted to Chief of Staff in the Congo army.▯ • Now he plays an important roll because he controls the faction that is not supporting anyone and who will they choose.▯ ▯ Lumumba:▯ • The most famous infamous person is Lumuvumba but he is stuck in the capital and is surrounded by potential enemies. Theoretically he was under the protection of the UN. ▯ • In early 1961 he is either kidnapped or taken prisoner. ▯ • Somehow he is found killed in Katanga ▯ ▯ Fighting continues until late summer 1961 there is a settlement between Kasavubu and the remnants of Lumumba forces and the Belgians leave Katanga.▯ ▯ Now the UN is forced to move further south. And deal with the mercenaries and is involved in heavy fighting in Katanga, this is worrying to the secretary General Dag is involved in shovel diplomacy to get a cease fire in the south.▯ ▯ However Dag’s plane crashes and kills him while they are trying to get this shovel diplomacies. This fails spectacularly and fighting continues to 1962 and the Aencey is winning at this point.▯ ▯ The fighting here is brutal and they have no issue about who they are killing and have no problem with collateral damage this is similar to under leopold’s rule and under the rule of the Belgians. ▯ ▯ 1963▯ • Looks like there is an end because Tshome is given up and Kasavubu is in charge again but there is unrest in the ground previously controlled by Lumumba.▯ • That group felt that they were being treated unfair and there are rebel groups starting and getting support from various communist and other places.▯ • The Priminester is now Tshombe to try and restore order (ex-separatist) ▯ • The Aencey does manage to restore order▯ • Bad news Kasavubu cannot play well with others and argued with Tshombe over long term policies for the congo.▯ • This vulnerability allows for someone to take advantage of the situation.▯ • Mobutu does this and seizes power, this is a military coup d’tat ▯ • Joseph Mobutu winds up being the prototype of the Big Man. He changes his name to Mobutu Sese Seko and changes the same of the country to Zaire and change the names of the large cites. ▯ ▯ The Reign of Mobuto▯ • In charge for 3 decades ▯ • Able to turn even recent events into recent mythology ▯ • Mobutu establishes a One Man (one party) rule in Zaire and is set to reflect him▯ • He also carefully choses a side in the Cold War he is Pro USA.▯ • This means a lot of American money finds its way to Zaire and a lot is floated to his pocket about 4 billion US$ which was the equivalent of their national debt.▯ • The problem is, is this region is prone to instability, boundaries cut across where groups live and this region in the East and the North East is an excellent example of this. These are people of whom who have had long standing issues with working with each other.▯ • This became more apparent in Rwanda ▯ ▯ Rwanda ▯ • At the end of the WWI the Rwanda area was given to the Belgians and they followed the same methods as in the Belgian Congo.▯ • No involvement of the locals in significant jobs in the governments.▯ • They favored the Tutsi group in their reign.▯ There is a longer time line while they pull out of the Congo in 1960 they are not given • independence in 1962 and seriously given power in 1969.▯ • Now the Hutu are given more power because of their numbers in Rwanda. However these groups are over lapping in other countries in the area. ▯ • Once Rwanda achieves independence in 1962 a few things happen. ▯ • Certain amount of precaution against the Tutsi minority and some flee to Tanzania and Burundi▯ • Rwanda is a former Belgian colony and this attracts the attention of the French. The French have some sort of influence in this region. ▯ • The biggest problem in this region in the 1960-70s is that the coffee market collapses. ▯ • In Burndi they are trying to create a combined government of tutsi and hutu▯ • However in Rwanda its only a Hutu government▯ ▯ Those who have fled as refugees▯ • This new generation perceives themselves as Hutu and Tutsi and want to return home and realize that they are from another country and should join an army in either Uganda or Tanzania▯ • They learn skills here that they can apply when they go home to Rwanda. ▯ • However the must learn english and Rwanda is French. Here is another divide between the Hutu majority and the Tutsi who are in exile ▯ ▯ 1980’s▯ • A military force is formed and called the Rwandan Patriotic Front RPF▯ • Goal is to invade Rwanda and over throw the government and allow the return of the Tutsi exiles and tanks. ▯ 1990’s▯ • In the 1990s the RPF becomes successful and convinces the Rwandan government to sit down and create a power sharing agreement called the Arusha Accords signed in 1993▯ The UN makes sure that this Accord is maintained and the peace is maintained.▯ • • There are 2 significant problems▯ • Both sides in the conflict still have armed forces. The government has it’s own army and there are unofficial militia groups forming and the RPF maintains its armed group.▯ • This has to do with the UN force and their decen
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