Class Notes (808,489)
Canada (493,250)
History (488)
HI330 (15)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - January 15.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Dana Weiner

HI330 Lecture – January 15 2013 The Origins of African Slavery in North America -People of African descent already living in what would become the American colonies for centuries before slavery -Since these first black Americans left few written records What was it like to be taken into slavery? -Slaves captured in many ways -Sometimes in a communtities enslaved the entire village -Selected individuals based on vulnerablility or certain tasks -Captives eventually had to march to the coast of Africa where European traders took them to Americans or Europe  usually tied together with rope or put yokes between their necks -Many died during this process and others died from hunger, exhaustion or exposure -Many were killed or killed themselves -Sources on slavery -Few written records -Equiano – providing his own account -Learn from the white settlers who oppressed and enslaved them -Ordeal from capture to destination -The overland journey On the Coast -Factories -Families divided based on ethnic or linguistic lines to make it harder for people to communicate -Removed their clothing and inspected people’s bodies for diseases or disabilities -Those that would be for purchase were branded -Captives faced the prospects of being shipped across the ocean they would have never seen (especially if from inland) -Many drowned themselves rather than go across the ocean The Middle Passage -The Crossing and the Slavers -Followed the routes that Columbus and the early explorers had established -This let them use prevailing winds and westward currents -Took 2-3 months and up to 6 months -Wars that grew out of the rivalries between the European nations -Nations attacked others ships to gather slaves and merchandise -Ships - Were usually small and narrow for the numbers of people they carried -Ship size measured in tonnage which determined how many slaves they could carry  usually 2 per tonne -5 ft. high and further divided by shelves with 2 ft. of headroom -Tied males in pairs to help prevent retaliation and kept them away from women and children -The constant shifting and crushing among the people -Crews would often leave the slaves neglected during storms -Clean, exercise, food, etc. -High disease and mortality rates -Crews -Died in high numbers due to the epidemics -The meaning of the middle passage -Period whens laves were taken out of Africa and brought to the colonies -Why do historians claim it is so important? -Shows a transition between the Old World and the New World and the shift from uncivilized to civilized -Colonists thought they were brining people into civilization by kidnapping them -Signifies the largest mass migration we had seen -Captive’s responses -Still had memories, culture and priorities and did their best to continue to exercise them -Newly enslaved people created new bonds with their newly met slaves etc which simulated familial/blood ties -Some intimate/sexual relations on the ships were considered incest as many considered those on their ships family -Seasoning’s limitation -Modified people’s behaviour, it didn’t obliterate their cultures Landing and Sale in the West Indies -Portion of the slaves would remain and others would be sold elsewhere -North America would remain on long weeks on land and rest and recover from their diseases -Forced their slaves to improve their appearance – including dying their hair etc -Once purchased the new slaves began the “seasoning” process, which was meant to “break them into plantation routines” -Acculturation -Change the attitudes of slaves -Accustom them to the germs in the Western Hemisphere -Make the effective labourers Shift around 1720 -Most of the Africans who ended in British North American in 1720 were taken to the West Indies before British North American colonies -After the 1720 – agriculture (Sugar) had become such a huge crop and demand for slaves was so high, planters there had few slaves to sell  from them on slaves came directly from Africa (instead of stopping over in the West Indies) The First North Americans: Native Cultures -Americas – approximately 75 million -Lived in close contact with others from colonial North America -When the English began to colonize the east coast there was no inclusive name -They considered themselves as quite distinct from one another -Mainland – more sparsely settled at the time of contact -2-10 million within the boarders of the present day USA -Different variation in life style -Nomadic -Major civilizations that relied on large-scale agriculture -Diverse cultures -Where slaves were brought – the communities of Native’s lived in small communities and were relatively settled -Women had influence -War had a right of passage or ceremonial function in these communities -Impact of English -Arrived in the mainland in the early 1500s -Impact of diseases Europeans brought the Natives -No disease resistance among Native groups -Fought back against attacks of the British – effects of disease made this difficult -Natives’ influence -Were able to use the natural resources of North America -This helped with agriculture etc of those new settlers here -Agriculture, medicinal herbs etc -Corn, beans, pumpkins, etc -Tobacco – secured the future of the English mainland *Many interactions from the beginning among the various people The English are Coming! -Spanish colonized the warm parts of the Americans, leaving to the English the cooler and less-populated areas of the Americas -English’s claim to the East coast of the North Americans -Cabot, 1497 -English were slow to get established in this region -Climate was harsher -English crown didn’t have the money to finance colonizing expeditions -Attempts in the 1580s to colonize failed -1607 -First successful English colony – Jamestown -English called in
More Less

Related notes for HI330

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.