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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - February 26.docx

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Dana Weiner

HI330 Lecture – Slavery in the Revolution African Americans & Freedom -500,000: 1776 -Approximately 25,000 free -Slaves + liberty rhetoric -Uprisings: NY GA, Carolinas, VA -Revolution for African Americans? -By 1781, est. 30, 000 runaways in the South -Try to replenish the number of slaves that ran away -Spirit of liberty and revolution shook up the institution in the USA -Military service beginning in the revolutionary area was the beginning of political activism by some black leaders A Black Loyalist’s Story -Boston King – exemplifies the reasons why some fought for the British side and why others did not -South Carolina -Worked with race horses and experienced an unusual amount of travel as a slave -His master was kind to him but his experience with other whites led him to be wary of the kindness whites showed him -Fled to British – British occupies Charlestown -Enlisted – helps save the unit by going to get reinforcements when they were outnumbered – he served as an orderly -Married Violet, fugitive slave from North Carolina -Eventful experiences of the revolutionary war -At the end of the war he is afraid that the British will have deals with slave masters -Post-War: 1783 -Certificates of Freedom (him and Violet) from the British General Carleton -Nova Scotia where he became a Methodist minister Freedom and Slavery -Gradual Emancipation in North -1777-1784 – Vermont, PA, Mass., & Connecticut -1799: NY -1804: NJ -Pennsylvania Act of 1780 -All children born to slave mother would be freed after the year of 28 ** Gradual *** Often this was only passed to the children that were enslaved -By 1810 – 200,000 free blacks -Start to see the creation of free black communities -1782 – VA manumission re-legalized -Outlawed the private emancipation of slaves -From the late 17 century to 1782 – you wouldn’t be allowed to free your slaves if you wanted to -In response to this, some do free them slaves -Southern Slavery -1793: El Whitney, cotton gin -One of the most important inventions in early industrialization -Ends up making slavery much more economically important and contributes to its enormous expansion geographically and numerically -At the formation of the new nation, slavery was extremely controversial -Feared division -Jefferson considers some fairly radical ideas in opposition to slavery -Becomes more slavery later in his life -Thought to confine slavery to the area East of the Appalachian Mountains -No state south of Maryland outlaws slavery -Upon his wife’s death – his slaves would be freed The New Nation and Slavery -American Revolution and the war to secure independence was centered on principles of natural equality -Creates an environment questioning of slavery -Among the revolutionary generation there wasn’t a clear line between property rights and human rights -1787 – Constitution and Slavery: -Constitution doesn’t specially mention slavery but referred to in other terms -Talked around the terms of representation and power of the slave holding states rather than the morality of the slave holding institution -Constitution recognized slavery as a legal constitution – what the federal government would mandate -Debated representation and power -Morality? -Article 1 Section 9 -Prohibits any federal action to abolish the slave trade for at least 20 years  prohibits the transatlantic slave trade and bringing slave trade in from abroad -Fugitive Slave Clause -Every state must respect the property rights of other whites from other states -I.E. – if you think slavery is wrong you don’t have the rite to interfere -3/5 Clause: effects for -Extends the power of slave holders -People who would otherwise not be counted because they’re not voters get to bump up numbers for the south -Acts against the interests of the slaves -Slaves count as a fraction of a person – their addition to the population numbers for these Southern states gives slaveholding politicians more power -Slaves? -Slaveholding politicians? Looking Ahead At Slavery -Some legacies of the American Revolution brought baggage from its previous policies -Institution of slavery isn’t addressed by the new government -How to create a functioning government -Revolution and US Civil War? -Constitutional debate  later struggle between slavery and freedom -Protecting slavery indirectly -Country expands geographically enormously over the late 18 and early 19 century and the expansion of slavery into what would become the cotton west -The institution expands in the new nation -Reasons for hope and despair -Hope despite the compromises and
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