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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - March 12 .docx

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Department
History
Course
HI330
Professor
Dana Weiner
Semester
Winter

Description
HI330 – Slavery, Expansionism and Escalating Sectional Conflict Sectionalism: northern verses southern ideas -Government -Back as far as the introduction of the first slaves to North America -Ties to the fracturing of the nation that leads to the civil war -During the revolution – what shape the government should take -Views of nation’s future – especially slavery -Gradual emancipation -Conflicts between free states and slave labour states -Disjunction between the South’s perception that the government is always out to get them and the federal government is their enemy -Revolution had created the largest slave holding republic but one that felt insecure from the beginning -Origins of sectionalism Expansion & Compromise -As soil became exhausted in some parts of the upper South some believed that they needed to move west and needed to be allowed to bring slavery with them to the West -Fears that free states will join the US and eventually the southern slave states would become outnumbered by the southern free states -Even southerners that remained in the old south, they felt passionately by extending slavery to the farthest western territories Missouri Compromise, 1820 -Missouri wanted – slave state -Wanted to be admitted to the union as a slave state -Certain population in a territory and then you can apply to be a state -10 000 slaves in the territory -Debate in Congress - thought that they should only be allowed to join the union if they were a free state – dissatisfying for all the slave holders that moved there -Congress passed Compromise, 1820 -Missouri – slave state only because Maine will enter as a free state -Main – free state -Precedent = balance of power set by the Compromise – one free state and one slave state added -Established (said) that slavery should never be expanded above the southern boundary of Missouri -Abolitionism *Shows that north and south relations were becoming poisoned by 1820 The Mexican War and the National Boundaries -Democrat James K. Polk -President 1844-48 -In the Mexican war, Polk settled boundaries of Pacific NW with Canada -Provoked war with Mexico for the purposes with national expansion -Increased sectional tensions -What to do with Texas – dispute about what should happen to di because of the problem of adding another slave state -This increases northerners annoyance The Wilmot Proviso -Mexican War, 1846-1848 -1846, Northern Democrat David Wilmot -Wanted to help preserve national unity -He said his intentions were peaceful so the country wouldn’t continue to have sectional divisions -No slavery in Mexican War lands -Massive reaction: protests -Out of Richmond, Virginia -House voted sectionally -Passed due to Northern majority -BUT southerners in the Senate overrode it -Example how sectional tensions are increasing during this time period Party Politics in Peril -1830s: Whigs v. Democratics come together in the early 1830s -Second Party System -2 parties from the early 1830s -1840s-1850s -Whigs destroyed over issues discussing slavery -Democratic divided -1848 Free Soil Party -Random assortment of anti-slavery politicians -Presented themselves as an agricultural party -Concept of blocking the expansion of slavery in western states to protect the rights of working men to protect middle class planters -Moderately anti slavery -Northern party -‘Free Soil, Free Labour, Free Men’ -Moderate antislavery, not abolitionists Compromise of 1850 1840 – American population increased significantly -California – free state – under Mexican law, slavery had been outlawed since the 1820s -Many southerners opposed Cali being a free state -Texas borders -Redistribute land to present day New Mexicp -Other lands gained from Mexico -Popular sovereignty – residents decide whether territorial governments are slave/free -The people will decide who will be ruling -Residents will decide if they were slave or free -Slaves in Washington, DC -Sale of slaves were outlawed here -Fugitive Slave Act -Enabled owners to recover slaves no matter how north they got -Feds help slave holders recover fugitives -The main people who pushed for this were the legislators in the deep south -Main purpose – resolve the issues of California trying to become a free state Outcomes of Compromise -Voting and sectionalism increases -New Mexico and Utah territories? -Fugitive slave law -Resistance -Many northerners resisted and refused to partake in it -Oberlin, Ohio in 1858  Oberlin-Wellington Rescue -Slave had been living in Oberlin for a few years -John Price was the slave -US Marshall and slave holders took him to Wellington and tried to sell him back south -People marched and were determine to recapture him and prevent him from going back to slavery -Some men from Oberlin went into the hotel, got him, and took him back to
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