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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - March 19.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Dana Weiner

HI330 – Slavery, Expansionism and Escalating Sectional Conflict March 19, 2013 -How the nation got so angry about slavery -How slave holders defended their institution -Aspects of the white south and aspects of slaveholders lives -Antislavery movement doesn’t pop up out of nowhere -Religious developments  People could change or even perfect their world -By 1861 – there were nearly 4 million slaves in the US -Some people believed that they wanted to extend freedom to everyone -This lead to a small upswing, some being willing to privately free their slaves, and some laws, which permitted private manumission -No groundswell for abolition after the Civil War -Small percentage of the population that is willing to challenge the existence of the institution  Quthers, free blacks, slaves -By the start of the 19 century, many antislavery advocates were using gradual methods and wanted to end the slave trade (partially successful – trans-Atlantic), and worked on the very gradual and impractical method of colonizing free slaves to African and other places -Many of the motivations were very racist – colonization depended on the belief that other races could never gain equality with whites -There weren’t any concrete or feasible plans to bring it about -Popular idea -There methods were never very popular -Quakers -Radical religious group -Key to both the British and US anti-slavery movements -Starting in the 1770s – Quarkers began to free their slaves and stop their participation in the trans-Atlantic slave trade -Started schools for blacks -Thought that the institution of slavery displeased God – God would be angry with slave holders -Opposed to using political methods for reform  needed to separate their moral causes from politics -Moral Suasion -Appealed to the individuals conscious and tried to make people see the sin of slave owning -Sarah and Angelina Grimke  converted to the Quaker faith and left to South to become public advocates against slavery -Instrumental in the early arguments against slavery -Shift to radicalism  was something that AA and Whites were engaging in -1829 – David Walker published Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World -Used the bible and the Constitution to argue that everyone deserved freedom -He said slavery is such a crime you should use any method you can to escape and get ride of it -Influential among other black abolitionists -Early 1830s -Slavery was spreading to the west and growing stronger in southern economy -William Lloyd Garrison – Bostonian and white man -Took a few very big steps after Walker’s appeal -Published The Liberator which was founded for the purpose of abolition -Founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society (first national) -Making strong public pronouncements against the institution in his newspaper -Him and his fellow abolitionists became the most radical in the anti-slavery movement -Immediatists – their beliefs -1831 – organized action -Wanted more immediate emancipation  immediate -Refused to pay slave holders for the values of slaves -Anyone who condoned slavery in any way was committing a sin -Consumer Boycott – don’t buy things that are produced by slave labour -Saw women as equals and argued for women’s rights -Wanted pacifism among other causes -Against colonization method -Saw slavery in moral and spiritual terms -Wanted to sway people through conversation – show how slavery was a sin - offense against morality and God -Secular views -Literal interpretation of the Declaration of Independence -Garrison – militant and well-spoken man -Made many enemies -Bible and the Constituion – if they support slavery he was willing to burn the Constitution and they shouldn't be following the bible -Wanted the North to remove themselves from the Constitution and Dominion -Moral and spiritual – awakened during the Second Great Awakening -Concept called the “Higher Law Doctrine” -Idea they should follow the higher law -Should break people’s laws (i.e. Fugitive Slave Act) in order to follow God’s laws -Wanted women and men to follow God’s laws -Deliberately provocative -New societies in the 1830s and 1840s  published newspaper, slave narratives, etc -Tiny minority of approximately 100 000 across the nation -By the 1840s, a group of them had come to belief that this anti- slavery tactic of moral suasion had not really work very well (too slow and moderate) and some of them started to doubt their methods -Tactical dilemma – confronted with the problem that the political system was corrupt and they shouldn’t be involved with the political system -Policy  refuse to vote  no matter who they were voting for they were supporting slavery so they didn’t vote at all -1840 – new society split off from the Garrison, American Anti-Slavery Society -New anti-slavery society was politically oriented and wanted to get elected -If they were too radical it would upset too many people -Creates 2 polarities  AASS and immediatists (more concerned with the principles of rite and wrong and weren’t thinking about politics) on one side and more moderate anti- slavery faction on the other side (even the moderate people were still relatively radical for their time) -African American Abolitionists -Few AA Abolitionists were willing to take the step of advocating Turner’s method, Turner, by uthng former documents, was part of a larger tradition -Many AA in the 19 century were increasingly vocal in the criticism of how their nation failed to live up to their nation’s ideals -Even reversed the usual language of the Revolution -Called revolutionaries tyrants and oppressors -Many AA became Garissonians, Garrison himself refused to accept their vision that the only way to destroy slavery and slave holders was through violent actions -Black Convention Movement -Starting in the 1830s – place where black activists and abolitionists put forth an argument that the US government was holding up American government -Present in many states -Develop their own idea and discussion of the Revolutions legacy and outcomes -Used the legacy of the Rebellion to overthrow the institution -Committees of Vigilance -“Guardian Groups” -Organization that if someone was going to come and kidnap a slave into slavery there would be a group that would try and defend and protect them (David Ruggles) -This kind of protecting fugitives with violence was a distance from Garrisonian ideals from passivism and violence -Sojourner Truth -Major figure in black abolitionists and women’s rights -Born in the North to New York -English was her second language (Dutch was her first) -1799 – gradual abolition was started -Truth’s master refused to honour this – she ran away -Previously had several children sold away from her -Religion conversion – preach and though this conviction decided to make this was a preacher and women’s rights activists -Became a popular speaker and sold copies of her book at speeches -Personal testimony about her experiences and at the time she confronted some oppression -Appeared in the Akron (Ohio) Convention -Women’s Suffrage Convention -Controversial speech – woman even though she wasn’t maintaining the stereotypical thoughts of being a woman -Gets a lot of static from members of the audience as people don’t necessarily want to allow her to have her say -Racist element on how people depict her talking in a stereotypical way -Phenomeno
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