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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - March 26.docx

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Dana Weiner

HI330 – Election of 1860 March 26, 2013 Election of 1860 -Republicans -Lincoln from Illinois -Constitutional Union Party -Bell from Tennessee - -Democratic Party split -Northern Democrats -Douglas from Illinois -Southern Democrats – wanted a pro southern stance and thought that popular sovereignty wasn’t enough -Breckenridge from Kentucky – was the VP of the time -Slave Defense Platform – defend the institution of slavery -Highly contested election – Republicans won Final Catalysts for Secession -Lead to the fracturing of the union -John Brown’s Raid -In 1859 and his election -Build up to the election – see among southerners see hysteria about the possibility of a republican victory -Southerners threatened secession but northerners didn’t take this seriously -Presidential Election, 1860 -Won 39% of the popular vote with almost no Southern support -Southerners believe that they have to act in defense of their way of life Secession – December 1860-February 1861 -7 states left the Union and others followed -Republican Party didn’t exist before 1854 -Republicans were not an abolitionist part and did not seek the quick and full uncompensated removal of the slave system -> wanted to contain slavery -Thought the election results were the beginning of the end of southern slavery and the southern life style – thought they didn’t have to obey the Constitution Secessionists: Revolutionary Heirs? -America’s origins, Constitution -Federates – justified their secession based on the Constitution -Question of who what came first -Unionists said that the larger entity – United States – created the states -Which came first? States or Union? -Unionists: United States created states -States: no independent existence -States only came into existence after the United States did -Chicken (USA) before the egg (states) -Secessionists: states created by nation by ratifying Constitution -If some states betray agreement, other states could secede -States came first – used this to justify their position that their constitutional rights had been violated -Impact? -Lead the nation into war and make Lincoln make very tough decisions - Lincoln is strong believer in the Constitution and he had to make many unconstitutional moved in order to keep the country together Slavery Collapsing: Abolition & Emancipation -Why was there a Civil War? -Problems since nation’s founding -Federal vs. state power -Who should influence the government and what the appropriate role of the government should be -Power distribution -Slavery -> founders did not resolve, avoidance of direct language of slavery shows that founders knew this would be an important issue -Political and Intellectual Problem -Slavery -In Constitution -In territories -Political, moral issue -Sectionalism -Perceptions/communication -Different ideas of their government should do and allowed to do Secession in Action -Longstanding tensions -North and South saw themselves as opposing civilizations -White southerners – thought they were superior and made state rights their priority which they saw as more important than national unity -By November of 1860 some parts of the South were thinking about secession for years -December 1860-March 1861 -7 states met in conventions -Southern Unionists -Who were they? -Southerners didn’t believe it would be that big of a deal or that they would be chased down militarily if they tried to secede -Divisions in unionists and confederates – were not entirely divided -Feds: minor compromise attempts – some wanted to allow the South to keep slavery and keep it from spreading to the North -Keep slavery in South, not North -Already had 7 states that left the union and other 4 after war starts -Lincoln in his 1 inaugural speech – wouldn’t interfere with slavery where it already exists Confederate States of America -March 1861 -State secessions  new nation, CSA -Set up a government for themselves that model’s the USA -Montgomery, AL -Created Conf. Congress -Elected Jefferson Davis President -MS planter, US senator, former Secretary of War -Confederate challenges -How were they going to fund their government and pay for the war -Confederate constitution -Put into law states rights over national rights -Explicit guarantee of slavery -Legislated for white racial supremacy The Conflict Begins -Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbous, SC: April 4, 1861 -Lincoln’s orders: South must fire first -Major Robert Anderson refused to surrender the fort -Don't want to make it look like they were forcing the South into war with them -April 12, 1861 -Confederates fire on fort -After 36 hours, Feds surrender -No deaths -Really marks of official beginning of the civil war I
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