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Lecture 2

KP141 Lecture 2: Philosophy and Physical Activity Lecture Notes (1)

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Kinesiology & Physical Education
Stephen Wenn

Philosophy and Physical Activity – September 16 2015 What is philosophy • Harold Barrow states: study of the truth and the principles underlying all knowledge • A system for guiding life • A study of the most general causes and principles of the universe • Philosophy is both a process and a product. For example, the process is the method used to establish a system of values and the product is the system of values that is produced by the process September 18 2015 • By virtue of the accumulation of ideas, one can be a philosopher • A philosopher’s job is to inform, give other points of view and the to show the merit of their ideas and weaknesses of others Branches of Philosophy • Metaphysics (Meta = minds, Physics = the tangible world and our bodies in it)- question about reality and existence -Aristotle- sense experience = what we know = Empiricism -Plato- what we know is based on pure thought, sense experiences interfere with our ability to achieve pure thought, since how we respond to sense experiences changes we cannot trust sense experiences • Axiology- the study of values, ethics and morals, why people have different types of moral values • Epistemology- the study of knowledge • Logic- the relationship of ideas to one another The Questions of Philosophy 1. The nature of the universe 2. People’s place in the universe 3. The determination of good and evil 4. People’s relationship to the state 5. The nature of God Philosophy and Physical Activity • Questions to be answered 1. Defining, characterizing and classifying activities 2. Is sport an art form? 3. Are values taught and learned thru sport? 4. What is the relationship between the body and the mind/ soul? 5. How are sport and kinesiology/ physical activity education different and the same? September 21 2015 Philosophy • Meier: Philosophy may be characterized as the art of wondering, life should be about asking questions • Philosophy involves vigorous, descriptive and root reflection with careful, systematic construction of a well formulated and substantiated set of assertions and beliefs • Philosophy is not for those with closed minds or entrenched personal opinion, but rather, those who have a capacity for wonder and an enthusiasm for creative disturbance. September 23 2015 How are sport and kinesiology/ physical education different and the same? • Both talk about motor skill performance • Intense physical activity (the focal point) • Kin = gaining knowledge • Phys. ed.= performing at a high level Curiosity • People are being discouraged from being curious • The relationship between curiosity and good social behavior • Discouraged in kids • Education system discourages- many teachers have specific education plans, and deviating from the plan results in the plan not being finished • Some of the things that we hold nearest to ourselves, is due to our curiosity- declaration of independence • Often it is curiosity that leads to social change • Curiosity + the answers we get = serve political system What do we gain when we are curious? 1. Disruption- maybe we don’t have all the answers 2. Competitive advantage- a coach, Steve Jobs, Sm Walton, Heinz- Creativity sparks creativity and leads to innovation • If you ask question with respect you will review an answer with respect • Being curious creates engagement • The human connection-authentic human connection that required curiosity September 25 2015 Self editing 1. One sentence as a time 2. Did I say what I wanted to say as economically as possible? 3. Did I confuse the reader? 4. Can it be interpreted differently? 5. Too many ideas? 6. What type of structure does this sentence have? 7. Also try reading from last sentence to first sentence 8. Use paragraphs September 28 2015-09-28 The history of physical education and kinesiology in North America (1950s-1970s-2015) • Military wanted to do something to make Canadian army fitter • Government provided incentives to get Canadians more fit • The establishment of physical education programs in university was one of those incentives • Purpose of the program= highly skilled in a vast multitude of sports, practice various sports, how to teach others to become better athletes • 1952- physical education program resulted in professionals to teach others how to be athletic, mostly in the school system • Program described as professional preparation= worked in school system • mid 1950s- the intercollegiate coaches also taught whatever sport they coached • Canada was 20 years ahead of US in terms of curiosity of coaches • Coaches typically coach the way they were coached when they were athletes • Training techniques haven’t changed very much • Learning the difference between training short (high intensity) vs. long distance- In the 50s you would go to ask physiologists- will talk about energy production and how the body reacts to various stresses • Now that the coach understands energy systems, they teach these aspects of exercise physiology to tell class what goes on in the body when training athletes in various ways • Now the programs have developed science based aspects of the program • Coaches of other sports continue to ask more questions- why breaking down complex motor skills into small movement is the best way to train somebody in these movements- psychology and physiology department could help • Coaches have also asked why do certain people cheat- philosophers could take about axiology- to understand ethics and morals • CuriosityanswersThe growth of academic areas of interest in phys ed programs • 1972- still learning about how to become a better athlete although now exercise physiology has now become a subjects- as well as sport history, sport injury, sport history, biomechanics etc. • Now they are wondering how to reduce recovery times • Was a professional preparation program  Now the program has now resulted in an academic discipline made up of several other disciplines • Academic discipline= the attainment of new knowledge that attains to a particular focal point • Used to develop teachers and coaches  now develops new knowledge • In 2015- they now find very little physical activity, now the focal point is completely the new bodies of knowledge Why do we have a name problem? • Programs have changed from being physical education to kinesiology • 1. Phys ed. No longer describes what we are doing • 2. It has outlived its usefulness • 3. physical education was a problem to scholars, phys ed. students had a second tier status- this was because phys ed. would not get many grants for research because of phys ed.’s second class status- new scientific name will help give better status • 4. It implies a mind/body dichotomy- phys ed. just implicates that it is just the body and not the mind • 5. It is associated with school activity- not a life long concern- now concerned with physical activity throughout the lifespan • 6. Second class status on university campuses • 7. Were connected to sport- a worse situation than being a second class program New name was required September 30, 2015 • In the end, as we have moved from being a professional preparation program (training for employment) to an academic discipline (new knowledge creation) we have outgrown an old name which no longer describes what we do, and we have adopted a new name that is a better fit • Kinesiology- the study of human movement in relation to physical activity and sport October 2, 2015 • Historians paint picture based on evidence • Although there are different ways to ‘do’ history Sport History (Booth, 2005) Struna: Descriptive and Analytic History • Descriptive history is in decline, historians or readers of history now want to learn more • Descriptive History: Locates a person, trend, event or an organization in the past such as when did the modern Olympic Games begin (asks when, where, who questions) and focuses on single points in history • Analytic History- examine how and why situations, events and phenomena came into being such as why the modern Olympic Games were re-constituted after 1500 years of absence (asks the how and why question) and see history as a process involving social change and development, • Munslow and Jenkins: Genres in History-Re-Constructionist, Constructionist and Deconstructionist • Re-constructionist: What we know of history is independent from the historian. • They view history as purely an objective task and rarely get beyond a superficial examination of past events. Evidence based approach (Similar to the descriptive historians above) • Constructionist- Similar to the re-constructionist regarding objectify and the use of evidence. Differs from the re-constructionist in that it requires theoretical connection within which to locate the events of the past (feminism, Maxism, Jungian, Psych) • De-construction: Objectivity is abandoned and they p
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