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Lecture 17

KP161 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Motor Skill, Shortstop


Department
Kinesiology & Physical Education
Course Code
KP161
Professor
Michael Cinelli
Lecture
17

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Mar 14, 2016
Lectur e 17 - Chapter 9
Practice Schedules
Practice Context
Common belief: one must master fundamentals
What’s more important: keeping conditions constant or to generalize skill to different
situations
Eg. A shortstop does not field ground balls with the same specifications throughout a
game
Variability should be the focus of practice
Variability Practice
Variability in movement and context is a necessary ingredient for skill development
A learner should be able to generalize a skill to a variety of situations
Variable practice enhances the development of the learner’s schema (Schmidt, 1985)
oHelps to select appropriate parameters for task
Skill acquisition is best achieved through the modification of constraints (Newell
& McDonald, 1992)
Force-producing task (Shea & Kohl, 1991)
oPractice trials: constant practice group outperformed the variable practice group
oRetention test (learning): opposite effect
oGreater learning gains by variable practice group
Learning and Performance
Learning: a relatively permanent change in a person’s ability to execute a motor skill, as
a result of practice or experience
Performance: a temporary expression of a skill
Constant practice has a greater influence on performance, but variable practice has
greater influence on learning
Variable Practice Guidelines
How to implement variability
oAccording to Gentile (2000):
Assess the nature of the skill being learned and the environment in which
it will be performed
Open vs. closed skill
Then introduce variations in regulatory/non-regulatory conditions,
or both
Other areas where one can vary practice:
Movement concepts: create movement variations by describing
how skills are performed
E.g., direction, time, force, pathways
Challenges: variations of a task with a criterion attached that allow
learners to test progress
Ask questions, force them to enhance their performance
When to implement variability
Constant practice:
During initial stages of learning
When developing an understanding of the task requirements
(basic patterns)
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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