KP231 Lecture 14: Lecture 14 - Infectious Diseases

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Kinesiology & Physical Education
Renee Mac Phee

Infectious Diseases • Introduction • Infectious diseases have been in existence for centuries • Including smallpox, TB, influenza, whooping cough, typhoid, diphtheria, tetanus • More recently, we have diseases that are relatively “new” • Emerging infections - e.g., HIV/AIDS, MRSA • And we have diseases that are making a comeback • Resurgent infections - e.g., TB, influenza, malaria • Factors include overpopulation, inadequate health care, drug resistance, and increased international travel • Why be concerned? • Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death globally • Most are curable, so why should we still be concerned? • Because both the prevalence and the incidence of diseases continue to rise • Why the increase? • Ecological changes • E.g., changes in water ecosystems, deforestation, flood/drought, climate changes • Human demographics • Population growth, migration, war/civil conflict, urban decay, sexual behaviour, IV drug use • International trade/commerce • E.g., worldwide movement of goods and people; air travel • Technology and industry • E.g., globalization of food supplies; changes in food processing and packaging, organ and tissue transplantation, drugs that cause immunosuppression, widespread use of antibiotics • Microbial adaptation and change • E.g., microbes evolve, mutate, change in response to the environment • Breakdown in public health measures • E.g., reduction in prevention programs, inadequate sanitation and vector control measures • Types of pathogens • Contracting/spreading an infectious disease can be a ‘multifactorial’ process (several factors interact together): • The host must be susceptible • Immune system is compromised • Transmitting agent (e.g., pathogen) is present • Environment must be hospitable to the pathogen • 7 classifications of pathogens • Many within each classification • Pathogens • Bacteria • One-celled microorganism with sturdy, well-defined cell walls • Spherical, rod shaped, spiral shaped • E.g., TB, Staph, MRSA, VRE, strep throat, tetanus, toxic shock • MRSA • Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus is a type of staph infection (e.g., “flesh eating disease) • The staph bacteria is resistant to one of the strongest antibiotics we have - methicillin • Methicillin belongs to the family of antibiotics known as beta-lactams • Occurs most often in people: • Who have weakened immune systems • With recent surgical procedures • Can be found in the urine, the blood, any open place on the body (e.g., nose, open sore, rectum, mouth, etc.) • CA-MRSA • New arrival to Canada from the US • community -associated MRSA • Occurring in healthy people who have not had recent contact with a health care facilities • So far has been found in: athletes, military recruits, children, pacific islanders, alaskan natives, native indians, homosexuals, prisoners • Risk factors • Close skin-to-skin contact • Openings in the skin such as cuts, abrasions • Contaminated items and surfaces • Crowded living conditions • Poor hygiene • Treatment • Can sometimes be treated with some other types of antibiotics • Treatment may not always be successful • Can result in amputation of affected limb or death • Prevention • Keep your hands clean • Keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered until healed • Avoid contact with other people’s cuts • Avoid sharing personal items such as towels/razors’ • VRA • Vancomycin-resistant enterococci • Enterococci are bacteria normally found in the human intestines, female genital tract, and in the environment • When out of control, they can lead to infection • Vancomycin is an antibiotic commonly used to treat enterococci …. • Did not appear in the US until 1989, and in Canada in the mid - 1990s • VRE has been shown to cause ⅓ infections in patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the US • Treatment • Can use other antibiotics to treat, but part of the difficulty is that vancomycin is a strong antibiotic - if it does not work, may be hard to find something that does • Virus • Smallest common pathogen • Nonliving particles of DNA surrounded by protein coat • E.g., mumps, chickenpox, shingles, AIDS • Influenza - “the flu” • Respiratory infection caused by the influenza virus • Various strains exist and circulate throughout the world • “The flu” is NOT the same thing as the stomach flu (gastroenteritis) • In Canada, the season usually lasts from November to April • 10-25% of Canadians get “the flu” each year • 4000-8000 Canadians (mostly the elderly) will die from influenza or related complications • Spread through droplets that have been coughed or sneezed into the air • Found on the hands and surfaces of people with influenza • Once you touch their hands or the contaminated surface and then touch your mouth, nose, or eyes, you can become infected • Signs/symptoms • Headache, chills, cough • Followed rapidly by fever, loss of appetite, muscle aches and fatigue, runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes, throat irritation • Cold vs. Flu Cold Flu • Contagious, not treatable • Acute, contagious disease; treatable • Nasal inflammation • Hallmark sign is high fever for 24+ hours • Symptoms • Chills, fever, cough, sore throat, headache, • Runny nose muscular pain • Watery eyes • Increased potential for more severe complications • General (pneumonia) aches/pains • “The flu shot” • A vaccine is made up of fragments of inactivated influenza viruses • Grown injected into your body, your immune system develops antibodies against the strains of the virus in the vaccine • Once exposed to the virus, the antibodie
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