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LL200 – September 10 - November 26

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Languages & Literatures
Milo Sweedler

LL200 – September 10/13 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM Tests If unit is on iconography or art you need to know the work and name of the artist ex. Picture of painting you provide name and artist Don’t need to know dates Primary and secondary sources for research questions Register your clocker and there is a course package LL 200 – September 12 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM barbarians goths and Germanic tribes that were pushed west when the huns moved west and pushed the Germanic tribes west and then started moving into the Roman Empire vandals 1 of three tribes that moved into Rome and took it over, got their name to be associated with the destruction of rome stability of romans came through hegemony: political economic persuasion – ways to get ppl to cooperate and no longer resist 69: all fight for power to become emperor moment of chaos in rome jews were colonized by romans and forced to pay taxes and then jewish revolted romans squashed them coliseum was built with riches obtained through squashing the jews built to commemorate where they got the riches roman empire was enormous stretched from Egypt to spain and Ireland when in rome the event not to miss were the events that took place in the coliseum all activities in the coliseum tend to be on the bloody and violent side munera: a wealthy person would give back to the community and sponsor the games for the entertainment of the people. Often in government or the emperor himself functions: the emperor gets to basque in his glory watch his people happy present some grand thing that he gets credit for. Juridical excecution someone dies infront of the crowd spread their cultural influence through the large theatrics of the coliseum exciting blood shed gets celebrated the exotic animals were exciting for the people ie tigers as long as people are given food and entertainment they will be happy. No longer worry about the politics going on outside sort of import/export business- gladiators were pretty much slaves put into the arena as gladiators forms of gladiators wont be on test** gladiators were lowest class and property of their owners not entitled to the rights normal people had comparable to prostitute some people thought gladiator fights were immoral military and religious function individual gladiators were admired for their strength general category was frowned upon but individual not “heartthrobs for the girls” women in the arena – appear to be some women who fought in the arena but some say no some gladiators who played well and made their owners proud may have been given their freedom women as spectators – seating very hierarchy like (nose bleeds) role of the emperor – sponsor put on the show gained popularity and a spectator in the audience gladiators had accepted the fact they were there to die and die in front of the emperor commodus – considered to be one of the most reasonable emperors not a huge fan of the games less bloodthirsty – his son huge fan of the games went into the ring and fought with gladiators slaughtered many animals (animals were chained up he pretty much just shot bow and arrow) spectators – diverse group diverse reactions from nausea to sense of moral outrage to love of the game riots – fights would break out emperor would jump in and close down the arena decline of games – roughly by year 400 mostly because they were expensive gladiators were costly (well fed well trained) could make owner plenty of money when the economy was weaker empire started contracting now enemies started coming closer to rome don’t worry too much about map of invasions of roman empire ** games persist till 404 last game – monk tried to get in between two gladiators and stop the fighting he was stoned to death by the crowd LL200 – September 17 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM The Great Mosque of Cordoba The death of Muhammad Figurative death – in that he did not leave a successor Andalusia demographics Change to large population being muslim has to do largely with people who converted Christians cannot force muslims to their religion but muslims can convert Christians to theirs Arabic is eventually the main language people spoke – language business was done in Considered to be one of the great moments in jewish culture Caliphate of cordoba - states that they are an independent country but somewhat rely or coexist with the rest of the middle east - caliphate = kingdom therefore abd al rahman III proclaimed himself as the ruler of all muslims - this is the center of the muslim world cordoba is now the most prosperous city in Europe al-mansur was very military focused – raids into Christian north raids produce counter attacks from the Christians Ferdinand the third does not believe jews and muslims should have to wear identifying clothing Alfonso 10th established school of translators – people of all different nationalities got together and translated languages – everyone who knows more than one language can get together and translate several books etc .. Conversos are people of muslim or jewish faith that convert to Christianity Spanish inquisition was set up to weed out those people who said they converted when really they did not - they had no funding – the only way they got money was getting it from people LL200 September 19, 2013 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM Notre Dame The Medieval Period - 500 to 1450 AD - government with a king and dukes counts then barons – hierarchy of nobles - all commerce in France at the time was related to working the land - influence of the church was very prominent medieval france - notre dame construction was considered gothic architecture – flying buttresses - flying buttresses allowed them to build the churches higher massive high ceilings the social function of the cathedral - primary function place of worship - right in the middle of the capital of France - had an area where people would preform reenactments in front of the church - most were illiterate at the time the renaissance - renaissance means rebirth - getting away from gothic art – giving re birth to classic roman art - with printing press comes mass production of literature - reformation and printing press go hand in hand - notre dame becomes almost a relic from a supersticious age age of enlightenment - Voltaire targets the catholic church - they repurposed the cathedral to become the temple of reason - stone statues were taken down and beheaded as a ritual during revolution the roman period - genie chritaianisme ie genius of Christianity  all the ritualistic parts of Christianity is what chateaubriand calls the genius 1845-1864 - the word restored means in painting is someone gets paint and paints over it 1860-69 baron Haussmann clears the place du parvis as a military move – a way to quarantine it off and protect the cathedral when gothic architecture first was built it was considered light bright airy structure very light compared to other buildings western façade - the number 3 implicit reference to the holy trinity – two towers and in the middle rose window virgin with child - rose windows – circular stain glass window adam & eve - “original people” the church and the synagogue - church has a crown / synagogue crown has fallen blindfolded looking down - representation of Christianity overcoming Judaism - in the middle ages the closest rival was Judaism portal of the virgin - church is in the honor of the virgin mary - smallest of the three portals - intentional – reminder of the flawed nature of humanity we are not perfect only god is trumeau detail - from left to right – first god adam and eve (eve is created from adams rib) - moment of eve eating the apple then giving it to adam - in the middle we have the tree then serpents tail turns out to be a woman - association of femininity and evil – incarnation of the devil as a woman - then we have adam and eve covered up after they ate the fruit then st denis who was beheaded and walked miles placed his head somewhere … down below we have the guy holding the axe (who beheaded him) other side john the Baptist then st jenveve finally st silvester – first French pope (most people thought he was a demon because of his good math skills) below st jenveve – a demon being stepped on portal of last judgment – most famous of the portals - end is coming idea – moment you will be judged by your actions - 19 thcentury portal modeled after the other one that was already there never see Christ crucified on the outside of notre dame - Christ on the thrown Jerusalem at his feet - holding up his hands from the passion on either side are the angels holding the instruments of the passion ie spikes that held his hands and spike that stabbed him - either side of him are mary and john the Baptist - below weighing of the souls - we see the scale currently weighing a soul – demon coming from the bottom trying to pull the soul to the dark side - on the bottom raising of the dead people who died before the birth of chirst or Christianity – good souls get saved - below the people getting sent to hell are the apostles standing peacefully portal of st anne - back story of the virgin mary about anne and Joachim – parents of mary - moves all the way along the birth of chirst and that whole story even in the motel and 3 wise men gargoyles - are only the monsters that stick out of the church – there to protect the church from harm, also storm drains LL200 – September 24, 2013 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM Research Assignment 700-800 word analysis of a topic from a list of choices on the syllabus from the first part of course don’t say what was said in class – relate it to what was done in class through the topic on syllabus at least 2 print sources MLA Primary and secondary sources LL200 – September 26 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM Joan of Arc France in the early 15 thcentury - bad time for France st john the fearless was open about killing Louis 1 France splits into two main rival camps Joan hears voices of saints, no one knows where they came from  the voices eventually cause her a problem on trial because they aren’t sure it could have been demons speaking to her not saints when joan is in battle she gets hit with an arrow and the English believe they have killed her – when she comes back to battle the next day on her horse the English believe she’s a witch as Joan moves from one city to another she wins victory after victory for the French eventually leading to the coronation of Charles Joan’s Decline Charles begins to withdrawal armies and supplies from Joan because she was getting too much credit and taking the attention away from him When on trial they couldn’t understand her male clothing, voices, and fairy thing LL200 – October 1 st 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM Dracula - Bram Stoker publishes Dracula - example of the movie 1992  dracula takes many forms – mist/animal/bat/old and young person major themes - foreign invaders - sex and violence Vlad Dracula – 15 thcentury prince After researching three different account they realized all three were talking about the same person Life of Vlad Dracula - Vlad III is dracula Vlad II is his father - LL200 October 10/13 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM you missed the Borgias – beginning of this lecture was a continuation of that topic from lecture you missed Decoding Da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci - born by a noble man but with a maid who worked in his home - goes to Milan paints Last Supper and others goes to Rome works for Cesere Borgias as map maker (military engineer) - last job he had was the man who talked to the king - Priory of Sion – a book discovered in national library of Paris from 1099 Renaissance Man - also known as polymath – someone who seems to be able to do everything, masters everything they try - sketched first designs for helicopters, machine guns etc. - botanist – interested in plants and flowers - painter – best known for that now Renaissance Humanism - period after the middle ages – rebirth of classical greek and roman architecture, poetry, art  not a return to pre Christian times - eventually leads to the enlightenism – which goes against the church a lot of unfinished works linear Perspective - being developed in renaissance Italian painting at the time - straight lines parallel to the horizon that all lead back to one vanishing point – to give a sense of perspective and 3d imaging in Verrocchio’s studio - Tobias and the angel – Leonardo is maybe a model in the painting – maybe the fish in the painting was done by Leonardo as opposed to Verrocchio The Enigma of Mona Lisa - the focus is on her smile – makes you wonder what shes thinking is it a smile or a smirk? - uses technique of Chiaroscuro (light and dark) - sfumato (smoky) - strange that she is looking directly at the viewer – women are meant to be looked at not look at you - theories of the model o most common theory the woman named lisa o could be learndardo himself in drag – Leonardo was gay so this is possible o the eyes – two letters in her eyes a l and an s o and a 72 somewhere – do these letters and numbers mean something? o Evidence that Leonardo really does use these clues in his work - the title o the happy woman o Mona – Madonna o Lisa – probably best indication the model is the woman named Lisa (first theory) Madonna of the Rocks - woman could be mary? – other woman is an angel - the two children would be Jesus and John the Baptist - controversy over which is which - Dan Brown believes the one closest to Mary is Jesus and he is praying to John – he also proposes that Mary is holding an invisible head and the angel is slitting this imaginary persons throat - da Vinci painted this as a request of a church – the church rejected the painting - the two different versions – why was the first version rejected and why the changes in the painting? The Last Supper - very geometrical expressing da Vinci’s focus point on Jesus’ head - the divine proportion  Leonardo used this in his work - this is the moment when one of the disciples will betray Christ - expression of shock from all the disciples is from when Jesus tells them he will be betrayed by one of them - something odd going on with Peter – his hand is he doing the “your dead” movement – and the person next to him woman or man? - Dan brown says hand with knife belongs to no one – just hand without body - LL200 October 15, 2013 9/11/2013 11:14:00 AM con’t from last lecture - main message of the Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown, is the theory that Mary Magdaline was Jesus’ wife and she had a child, meaning there is a holy blood line - holy grail is not a cup it is a woman  shape between Mary and Jesus The world of Hans Hobein Holbein’s style was Northern Renaissance Style - his first influence was his father – father trained him and his brother in painting - known as Hans the younger and mastered Single-Point Perspective - Learns Sfumato technique- smokey technique to blend - adoption of Clouet’s method of laying base of coloured chalk before putting on the paint - First commission was the Meyer couple – two separate paintings but it looks like they are in common space – like one painting that has been split in half political Climate in Europe in the early 16thcentury - France and England two most powerful kingdoms in Europe at the time - holy Roman Emperor – looked up to for anything spiritual - Pope put him in place when the other one died because he was the least powerful – if king of England or France were put in place they would be too powerful th Basel in the early 16 century - influences that come in from the north and Rome (Italy) sale of indulgences – essentially tickets to heaven – one would give gifts to the church in return for the guarantee  church was corrupt at the time  buying ones salvation goes completely against the morals of the church  they learned to rely on this extra income  debate over free will – it is ones faith that decides where ones soul goes – things that you do in your life that make you a good person and sent to heaven excommunication the Diet of Worms – Luther is now declared an outlaw and a heretic – no punishment for killing him ie if you see him go ahead and kill him Luther founds a new church – after a while he becomes too powerful to kill  Now we have the birth of portestantism (literally protesting the catholic church) Return to Basel - paints his family - only surviving painting of his family members - loo
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