Linguistics Review.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Languages & Literatures
Course Code
LL223
Professor
John Schwieter

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Description
Historical Linguistics - the description and explanation of language change and evolution. -The English language has evolved so much that it must be classified over three main periods: –Old English (450-1100) –Middle English (1100-1500) –Modern Englisth(1500-present) Old English (8 Century) Nothing is Safe from Change… and Seaxan Þa sige geslo gan and Saxons the victory won „And the Saxons won the victory‟ Þa sendan hi ha m renddracan then sent they home messenger „Then they sent home a messenger‟ Phonological change [ha m]→[h m]→[howm] -Morphological change -an marks +past and + plural subject -Syntactic Change verb at end Language is Systematic -Remember language is rule governed and thus when one thing happens, it creates a domino effect. -Not only [ha m]→[h m]→[howm] but every instance of [a ] → [ow]. Why does language change? •Articulatory Simplification –Process that facilitates speech by: –deleting a consonant in a complex cluster •[f f s] → [f fs] –ephenthesis (segment insertion) •[ lit] → [ lit] •Spelling pronunciation –A source of language change whereby a new pronunciation arises that reflects more closely the spelling of the word –“often” is pronounced [ ft n] instead of [ f n] •the [t] was at one time eliminated, but the spelling did not change, so people began to pronounce [t] again. •Analogy –speakers prefer regular patterns. –“bring” → “brung” because of the correct data “ring/rung” •Reanalysis –involves trying to attribute the internal structure of a word to separate units. –“hamburger” (Hamburg, Germany) and not morphemes “ham + burger” •Languages in contact –when speakers from one native language frequently interact with speakers from another language. •Southwest U.S.-Mexico border •mixing: yard, truck, carpet •borrowing: Canada, moccasin, totem, tomahawk –Can introduce new phonemes and change sound distribution •Middle English had word-initial [f] but not [v] •English-French contact led to English permitting [v] Phonological Change -Begins with subtle changes in sound patterning -Identical processes we studied in phonetics have led to sound change. Sequential Change Place/Manner of Articulation Palatization/Affication Nasalization Umlaut (when a vowel or glide influences a vowel in another syllable) Dissimilation –A segment becomes less like another segment –Late Lat
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