Linguistics Review.docx

8 Pages

Languages & Literatures
Course Code
John Schwieter

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Historical Linguistics - the description and explanation of language change and evolution. -The English language has evolved so much that it must be classified over three main periods: –Old English (450-1100) –Middle English (1100-1500) –Modern Englisth(1500-present) Old English (8 Century) Nothing is Safe from Change… and Seaxan Þa sige geslo gan and Saxons the victory won „And the Saxons won the victory‟ Þa sendan hi ha m renddracan then sent they home messenger „Then they sent home a messenger‟ Phonological change [ha m]→[h m]→[howm] -Morphological change -an marks +past and + plural subject -Syntactic Change verb at end Language is Systematic -Remember language is rule governed and thus when one thing happens, it creates a domino effect. -Not only [ha m]→[h m]→[howm] but every instance of [a ] → [ow]. Why does language change? •Articulatory Simplification –Process that facilitates speech by: –deleting a consonant in a complex cluster •[f f s] → [f fs] –ephenthesis (segment insertion) •[ lit] → [ lit] •Spelling pronunciation –A source of language change whereby a new pronunciation arises that reflects more closely the spelling of the word –“often” is pronounced [ ft n] instead of [ f n] •the [t] was at one time eliminated, but the spelling did not change, so people began to pronounce [t] again. •Analogy –speakers prefer regular patterns. –“bring” → “brung” because of the correct data “ring/rung” •Reanalysis –involves trying to attribute the internal structure of a word to separate units. –“hamburger” (Hamburg, Germany) and not morphemes “ham + burger” •Languages in contact –when speakers from one native language frequently interact with speakers from another language. •Southwest U.S.-Mexico border •mixing: yard, truck, carpet •borrowing: Canada, moccasin, totem, tomahawk –Can introduce new phonemes and change sound distribution •Middle English had word-initial [f] but not [v] •English-French contact led to English permitting [v] Phonological Change -Begins with subtle changes in sound patterning -Identical processes we studied in phonetics have led to sound change. Sequential Change Place/Manner of Articulation Palatization/Affication Nasalization Umlaut (when a vowel or glide influences a vowel in another syllable) Dissimilation –A segment becomes less like another segment –Late Lat
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.