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Languages & Literatures
John Schwieter

Linguistics Study Guide Morphology – the study of word structure and word formation Lexicon – a speaker‟s mental dictionary which contains information about the syntactic properties, meaning and phonological representation of a language‟s words Word - the smallest freeform found in any language Free form – an element that can occur in isolation and/or whose position with respect to neighbouring elements is not entirely fixed Ex. Dinosaurs are extinct *Dinosaur are –s extinct Morpheme – the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function Ex. Books has two morphemes Book + s Simple Words – a word that consists of a simple morpheme Ex. Horse Complex Words – a word that consists of two or more morphemes Ex. Unemployment Free Morpheme – a morpheme that can be a word by itself Ex. Fear Bound Morpheme – a morpheme that must be attached to another element (the past tense marker –ed) Ex. Book + s Free Bound Allomorphs – variant forms of a morpheme Ex. A/An Analyzing word structure -Complex words contain a root morpheme and one or more affixes -Root morphemes belong to a lexical category (V, N, A, Av) -Affixes (Af) do not belong to a lexical category and are always bound morphemes Affixation -Prefix: attached to the front of the base ex. Replay -Suffix: attached to the end of the base ex. Vividly -Infix: occurs within the base ex. Tagalog: Bili „buy‟  Binili „bought‟ Infixes in Arabic Katab Kutib Aktub Uktab What is the main verb „write‟ based on what you can infer from the data? „k t b‟ Infixes in English? Some expletives in colloquial expressions ex. “fan - *(&!^@# - tás – tic” Not random, expletive precedes main stress of word Infixes must be inserted inside another morpheme, not between -“un- *(&!^@# - believe – able” is not evidence of infixation English Derivational Affixes Derivation: an affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base. Ex. Unkind, Modernize, Destroyed, Books, Blacken, Blackened. Derivation & Word Structure Un + A: unable, unkind, unhurt Un + N: unknowledgable, unhealth, uninjury *** (wrong) Phonology in morphology Phonological constraints on derivation morpheme -en can attach to monosyllabic adjectives that end in obstruents (all stops, affricates, and fricatives). Soften *bluen Madden *angryen Quicken *slowen Liven *greenen Class 1 affixes Affixes which cause a change in the consonant or vowel segments (phonological sound change) -ive, -ize, -y, etc. product-productive, public-publicize, democrat-democracy Class 2 affixes Affixes which cause no change in the consonant or vowel segments (phonological sound change) -ness, -ful, etc. prompt-promptness, hope-hopeful Compounding - the combination of two already existent words Resulting compound word is a noun, verb, or adjective. Rightmost category determines the category of the word This word is the ‘head’ Ex. Bluebird, Underestimate, redhot, greenhouse Properties of compounds A + N compounds are more prominent Phonological constraints in compounds Stress on first component - Greénhouse vs. green house, Wét suit vs. wet suit Tense and plural markers cannot typically be attached to the first element * [dropped kick] vs. [dropkick]ed * [Fridays night] vs. [Friday night]s Endocentric compounds Compound denoting a subtype of the concept denoted by its head. Steamboat = boat powered by steam Air hose = hose that carries air Airfield = a field where planes land Other examples: Policemen, oak leaves Exocentric compounds The meaning of the compound does not follow from the head. Redhead Redneck Other examples: Walkman, Maple Leafs Incorporation The combination of a word (usually a noun) with a verb to form a compound verb. English: babysitting, housecleaning Inflection The modification of a word‟s form to indicate the grammatical subclass to which it belongs. This can be done by: Affixation Internal change Reduplication Suppletion -English has eight inflectional affixes. These are found on nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and provide the following grammatical information: plural (-s) and possessive (-„s); third person singular non-past tense (-s), past tense (-ed), progressive (-ing) and past participate (-enl –ed); comparative (-er) and superlative (-est). Inflection vs. Derivation Category Change Inflection does not change category or type of meaning Derivation changes category and/or meaning Order Derivation before inflection Inflection vs. Derivation Productivity - Inflectional has more freedom Other processes related to inflection Internal change Substitute one non-morphemic segment for another to mark a grammatical contrast Suppletion Morphological process that replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast. Spanish: ir (to go) fue (he/she/you went) Reduplication Marking a grammatical or semantic contrast by repeating all or part of the base to which it applies. Full Reduplication Turkish gyzel (beautifully) gyzel gyzel (very beautifully) Partial Reduplication Tagalog lakad (walk) lalakad (will walk) Stress and tone placement Tone placement: the tone placement distinguishes the words meaning or grammatical class. Présent vs. present Other inflectional phenomena Case: change in it‟s word form to indicate its grammatical role (subject, object, etc.) I vs. me = I met the man vs. The man met me. He vs. him Agreement: word is inflected to match certain inflectional properties of another word. I speak He speaks Other types of word formation -Cliticization: the process of affixing a clitic (verbal abbreviation) onto a host (root word) Clitics - Elements that must be attached to a host. ‟m, ‟s, ‟re = I‟m, She‟s, We‟re t‟ = Jean t‟jaime. Clitics are members of lexical category Proclitics: added to beginning of host Enclitics: added to end of host -Conversion - Assign an already existing word to a new syntactic category -considered zero derivation, adds no affixes Clipping - shorten a polysyllabic word (prof.) Blends - words created from non-morphemic parts of two already existing items brunch, smog, spam Backformation - words created by removing an affix from another word. donate (from donation), orient (from orientation), edit (from edition) Acronyms - words formed by taking the initial letters of the words in a phrase and pronouncing them as a word (UNICEF, NAFTA) Onomatopoeia - words created to sound like the thing that they name. (cock-a- doodle-doo, bow-wow, meow) Coinage - words created from scratch Product names: Kodak, Teflon Brand names accepted as generic names. Kleenex Morphophonemics - rules that account for alternations among allomorphs Example: plural morpheme marker “s” -[s], [z], [ez] in lips, pills and judges Rule-governed according to the internal word structure: [s] occurs after voiceless sounds [z] occurs after voiced sounds [ez] occurs when vowel is needed to -break up an illegal cluster of sounds English syllabic structure doesn‟t allow [d3z] Syntax - the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation in human language. The study of how words are ordered to form phrases and phrases are ordered to form sentences. What does it mean to be grammatical? Native speaker judges utterances to be possible sentences or not. –* House painted student a the. –The student painted the house. Transformational generative grammar Theories that form part of Universal Grammar (UG) According to UG, syntax must have: –Lexicon component (mental dictionary with pronunciation, and meaning) –Computational system (cognitive processes) that either: Merge elements to create phrases and sent. Move to transport elements to different parts of a sentence Syntactic Categories •Lexical categories –Easy to define –(N), (V), (A), (P), (Adv) •Non-lexical categories (functional) –Hard to define; carry little semantic meaning –The (Det), will (Aux), or (Con), very (Deg) Determining a word‟s category •The child stood near the fence. adjective •The runners neared the finish line. verb •The end is nearer than you might think.  We can determine the category of each by: meaning, inflection, and distribution. Meaning –(N) name entities –(V) designate actions, sensations, and states –(A) designate a property or attribute of the entities denoted by nouns. –(Adv) denote properties and attributes of the actions, sensations, and states designated by verbs. Inflection –certain morphemes can only be attached to certain lexical categories. Distribution –ordering of types of elements with other types. Phrase structure –Sentences have a hierarchical design in which words are grouped together into successively larger structural units. Phrase –Unit that stands between words and sentences in syntactic structure The Blueprint •Phrase has three parts: head, specifier and complement •X‟ (“X-bar”) schema (next slide) Heads - obligatory nucleus around which a phrase is built. What‟s the head in the following? –PP: in the barn –VP: sang –NP: the man –AP: old barn Specifiers - words that make the head of the phrase more precise In English, left most element Determiners (Det): Spec of N –the, a, this, those, no Adverbs (Adv): Spec of V –never, perhaps, often, always Degree words (Deg): Spec of A or P –very, quite, more, almost Complements - in addition to Head and Specifier, the phrase also contains a complement. •In English, right most element •Provide information about entities and locations whose existence is implied by the meaning of the head. •A vegetarian would never eat [ NPa hamburger] Examples: •A vegetarian would never eat [ NPa hamburger] •NP: A hamburger is complement of V „‟eat‟‟ •Eat is a transitive verb -- takes a DO. Merge - combine words in a manner compatible with the phrase structure schema. This is operated by the computational system Sentences - largest syntactic unit -Consist of an NP (subject) and VP (predicate) -Traditional approach S=NP VP -Sentences have as their head an abstract category dubbed I (for inflection) -Contemporary approach IP=NP VP Constituents - a phrase forms a syntactic unit, or constituent, and can be verified using special tests. Substitution test The children will stop at the corner. =They, do so, etc. NP=replaced by „they‟, „it‟; VP=replaced by „do so‟ Movement test They stopped at the corner. = At the corner, they stopped. Coordination test The children stopped at the corner and looked both ways. = reduplicating Complement Options Complements are “what a word needs” Complements occurs after –VP, NP, AP, PP –The child devoured [ NP the sandwich] –* The child devoured. Complement Clauses The psychic knows that the candidate will succeed. The psychic knows [ that the candidate will succeed]. CP The first sentence is the Matrix Clause (everything). Complementizers – That/Whether/If CPs can occur as complements of •V: They said that Mary had left. •N: There‟s a rumor that Mary will leave. •A: I am certain that Mary will leave. •P: He wonders about whether Mary will leave. Structure of an embedded CP Deep and Surface Structure Like allophones, which have underlying phonemes representing them, all sentences have (and many times they look the same): –deep structure –surface structure •Sentence is formed in this order: 1) merge operation (according to X„ schema) to give DS 2) move operation* to give SS If a sentence doesn‟t require movement, the SS is the same as the DS. Sentences requiring move operation Yes-no questions –Can we go home? ‘Do insertion’ questions –Do you have the tickets? Wh-questions –When is the party? Note: Chomsky and colleagues traditionally
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