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Lecture 2

MI201 Lecture 2: Unit 2 Managing Cultural Diversity in Moorish Iberian Peninsula & the Ottoman Empire
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7 Pages
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Fall 2017

Department
Mediterranean Studies
Course Code
MI201
Professor
Abderrahman Beggar
Lecture
2

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The Maghreb Land of the Moors
Arab world is split in 2: Maghreb vs. Mashriq
-
The Maghreb
Arabic word for "sunset"
-
3 definitions of Maghreb
Old name for Morocco
1.
Three afro-Mediterranean countries; Morocco, Algeria &
Tunisia
2.
Arab definition - Libya & Mauritania are included in the
Maghreb
3.
-
The Maghreb serves as a bridge between the Middle East,
Africa & Europe
-
Has a long cultural heritage:
First human presence - Berbers (Amazigh)
Berbers invaded by: Phoenician, Romans, Byzantines,
Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans, Greeks, Portuguese, Spanish,
French (the list goes on!)
-
The definition of Maghreb has changed though
-
The Moors
tis
Mix of all of the invasions above, but mainly Arab-Amazigh
-
All over North Africa & Europe
-
Moor comes from Marra (means transit) - they were nomadic
people
-
How do nomadic people build palaces, philosophy, etc?
Bouraoui: nomadism as a psychological disposition
towards movement and openness towards others as well
as new experiences
Somebody that takes everything from everyone (invented
the concept of 0 - taking things from everyone, the zero is
the symbol of perfection - "if you have 1 + 0, that’s a 10",
etc.)
-
Space & People
The definition of nation does not exclusively translate to the
boarders of a state
-
Belonging cannot be limited by SPACE
But then violence is created (ex. When nomadic people
roam out of their "defined space")
-
Space & geopolitical realities
The idea of space & countries is constantly changed by
the reality of geopolitical realities
-
Space & cross-cultural & trans-national experiences
Bringing components of a different culture into yours
(cross cultural)
Transnational (go beyond the definition of a state, ex.
Immigrants)
-
The Moors in the Iberian Peninsula
Originated from Africa, left in 711 (chief is called Tarik) for the
Iberian Peninsula (arriving to Spain)
Gibraltar (bottom part of Spain which is owned by the
British stands for Tarik's mountain)
Tarik burned down all the boats so that they cannot go
back (a project of settling)
-
From there, they went to Portugal, and then took a part France,
and Spain (and wanted to SEPARATE)
-
Stayed there until 1492
Christopher Columbus reached the Dominican etc.
Same year, the Moors lost the Iberian Peninsula
-
This shows the roots of multiculturalism
-
Managing Cultural Diversity
3 M's
Mission - your mission has to be clear (what am I trying to
get?)
Means
Method
-
The moors formed alliances (their strategy for success) - they
discovered that..
Population with multiple roots (Jewish, Goth, Visigoth,
Iberic, Celtic, Celtiberic, Vandals)
In addition to their newcomers from Mediterranean islands,
Middle East, Far East, Anatolia, and Sub-Sahara
They found a common ground between the two,
which is MULTICULTURALISM/DIVERSITY
§
-
Al-Andalus (Vandalucia, the land of the Vandals) - they didn’t
call it the moorish land, etc. bc they respected the locals
-
Atta'yosh or Convivencia
Atta'yosh = arabic term for cohabitation
-
Convivencia = spanish, refers to a social contract aimed at
granting religion tolerance and cultural freedom
-
Reasons Behind Tolerance
Arab-muslim califate (arab-muslim empire)
Seeking alliances among the natives of conquered lands
-
Islamic principle of respect + protection (dimmah) of Ahlo al-
kitab or peoples of the Book (jews and christians)
-
High intellectual level of the sovereigns themselves
-
Zyriab
Zyriab and king Abderrahman II:
-
kurde from syria
-
Revolution
-
Music: intro of fifth string to the Lute
-
Inventor of Cante jondo
New fashion from hair cuts to the dress
Perfumes for armpits
Three course meal
Changed diets
-
The Jews in Iberian Peninsula
Sephardic jews 1st c B.C
-
Segregation (ex. The romana visigotorum of 506: public office,
inter-ethnic marriage, religious freedom, ownership of Christian
slaves
-
The moors rule must have felt like a gift of god to them {the
jews] he continued "scholar agreed only on the fact that the
iberian peninsula was the sole place in Europe where the three
major religions; jewish, islamic and christian had a continuous
encounter over several centuries" (Norbert Rehrmann)
-
High responsibilites in the state
-
Some figures: chasdai Ibn schaprut (medicine), superintendant
of customs and foreign trade and chief negotiator for foreign
delegations and awarded the title of prince by Abderrahman III
-
Samuel ha-najid (poet and statesman)
-
The prince
-
Plato; ruler must be good at everything (business man is good
at business, general is good at war, ruler must be good at all)
-
Literatura de la Frontera
Resistance against the Moors:
First battle: 722(Covadonga) - kicked out in: 1492
-
Floating boarder: Christian Muslims and Christian Jews
Boarder between Christians and the moors & Jews, but the
boarders were constantly changing (almost daily)
-
El Abencerraje y la Hermosa Jarifa
Story from the time when the boarder was shifting, and its
about Abencerraje & Hermosa
Ab was a noble, had a lover (Jarifa) who snuck out
together in the night but he didn’t know that the
boarder changed; Christians took over the zone &
entered into Christian territory & they caught him
§
He said his last wish was to see his love, told him his
name so they could catch him, he went to see her
and in the end said "I'm going back to die"
§
Jews, Christians, and Muslims try to say that the hero
(Abencerraje) was theirs, therefore sharing something
That something is LOVE!!!
§
-
A boarder is not set, it is something that can also not only
separate, but also can be a source of wealth
-
Managing Cultural Diversity in the Ottoman Empire
Europe and africa were connected from the 8th century to the
15th
-
Ottoman empire born in the 14th century
-
Ottoman = present day Turkish
-
Morocco wasn’t part of the ottoman empire
-
Reached Vienna, but not Morocco
-
Collapsed beginning of the 20th C
-
The Millet System
Safeguard the interethnic and multi-confessional nature of
their empire
Larger than convivencia
Christians, Jews, shamanistic, Buddhist
1453 (Sultan Orhan): instituionalize difference
Created difference
§
The merit of such a system consisted in
Right to use language, own religious, cultural,
and educational institutions
protecting diversity from state interference
giving an official character to ecumenism and
multiculturalism
Enforcing a sense of belonging that transcend
ethno-religious references
§
-
Merit vs. blood
Was merit based on blood?
Military and diplomacy were based on MERIT not BLOOD
-
Critics of the millet:
Micro theocratic societies (giving too much power) (?)
Minorities, like the Albanians
Albania stayed marginalized
§
The millet was the route to all nationalities and when
the empire fell apart, all the nationalistic countries
suffered (especially countries in the Balkans)
§
-
Test
MC 20 Q
4-5 short answer on the readings
On everything up until now
Ex. MC
Which statement is true?
All of africa was in the Ottoman
-
Not morocco
-
Not algeria
-
Or not the middle east
-
Unit 2: Managing Cultural Diversity in
Moorish Iberian Peninsula & the Ottoman
Empire
Wednesday,* September* 27,*2017
6:34*PM
The Maghreb Land of the Moors
Arab world is split in 2: Maghreb vs. Mashriq
-
The Maghreb
Arabic word for "sunset"
-
3 definitions of Maghreb
Old name for Morocco1.
Three afro-Mediterranean countries; Morocco, Algeria &
Tunisia
2.
Similarities: Mediterranean & formerly colonized by France
(colonial definition)
Arab definition - Libya & Mauritania are included in the
Maghreb
3.
-
The Maghreb serves as a bridge between the Middle East,
Africa & Europe
-
Has a long cultural heritage:
First human presence - Berbers (Amazigh)
Berbers invaded by: Phoenician, Romans, Byzantines,
Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans, Greeks, Portuguese, Spanish,
French (the list goes on!)
-
The definition of Maghreb has changed though
-
The Moors
tis
Mix of all of the invasions above, but mainly Arab-Amazigh
-
All over North Africa & Europe
-
Moor comes from Marra (means transit) - they were nomadic
people
-
How do nomadic people build palaces, philosophy, etc?
Bouraoui: nomadism as a psychological disposition
towards movement and openness towards others as well
as new experiences
Somebody that takes everything from everyone (invented
the concept of 0 - taking things from everyone, the zero is
the symbol of perfection - "if you have 1 + 0, that’s a 10",
etc.)
-
Space & People
The definition of nation does not exclusively translate to the
boarders of a state
-
Belonging cannot be limited by SPACE
But then violence is created (ex. When nomadic people
roam out of their "defined space")
-
Space & geopolitical realities
The idea of space & countries is constantly changed by
the reality of geopolitical realities
-
Space & cross-cultural & trans-national experiences
Bringing components of a different culture into yours
(cross cultural)
Transnational (go beyond the definition of a state, ex.
Immigrants)
-
The Moors in the Iberian Peninsula
Originated from Africa, left in 711 (chief is called Tarik) for the
Iberian Peninsula (arriving to Spain)
Gibraltar (bottom part of Spain which is owned by the
British stands for Tarik's mountain)
Tarik burned down all the boats so that they cannot go
back (a project of settling)
-
From there, they went to Portugal, and then took a part France,
and Spain (and wanted to SEPARATE)
-
Stayed there until 1492
Christopher Columbus reached the Dominican etc.
Same year, the Moors lost the Iberian Peninsula
-
This shows the roots of multiculturalism
-
Managing Cultural Diversity
3 M's
Mission - your mission has to be clear (what am I trying to
get?)
Means
Method
-
The moors formed alliances (their strategy for success) - they
discovered that..
Population with multiple roots (Jewish, Goth, Visigoth,
Iberic, Celtic, Celtiberic, Vandals)
In addition to their newcomers from Mediterranean islands,
Middle East, Far East, Anatolia, and Sub-Sahara
They found a common ground between the two,
which is MULTICULTURALISM/DIVERSITY
§
-
Al-Andalus (Vandalucia, the land of the Vandals) - they didn’t
call it the moorish land, etc. bc they respected the locals
-
Atta'yosh or Convivencia
Atta'yosh = arabic term for cohabitation
-
Convivencia = spanish, refers to a social contract aimed at
granting religion tolerance and cultural freedom
-
Reasons Behind Tolerance
Arab-muslim califate (arab-muslim empire)
Seeking alliances among the natives of conquered lands
-
Islamic principle of respect + protection (dimmah) of Ahlo al-
kitab or peoples of the Book (jews and christians)
-
High intellectual level of the sovereigns themselves
-
Zyriab
Zyriab and king Abderrahman II:
-
kurde from syria
-
Revolution
-
Music: intro of fifth string to the Lute
-
Inventor of Cante jondo
New fashion from hair cuts to the dress
Perfumes for armpits
Three course meal
Changed diets
-
The Jews in Iberian Peninsula
Sephardic jews 1st c B.C
-
Segregation (ex. The romana visigotorum of 506: public office,
inter-ethnic marriage, religious freedom, ownership of Christian
slaves
-
The moors rule must have felt like a gift of god to them {the
jews] he continued "scholar agreed only on the fact that the
iberian peninsula was the sole place in Europe where the three
major religions; jewish, islamic and christian had a continuous
encounter over several centuries" (Norbert Rehrmann)
-
High responsibilites in the state
-
Some figures: chasdai Ibn schaprut (medicine), superintendant
of customs and foreign trade and chief negotiator for foreign
delegations and awarded the title of prince by Abderrahman III
-
Samuel ha-najid (poet and statesman)
-
The prince
-
Plato; ruler must be good at everything (business man is good
at business, general is good at war, ruler must be good at all)
-
Literatura de la Frontera
Resistance against the Moors:
First battle: 722(Covadonga) - kicked out in: 1492
-
Floating boarder: Christian Muslims and Christian Jews
Boarder between Christians and the moors & Jews, but the
boarders were constantly changing (almost daily)
-
El Abencerraje y la Hermosa Jarifa
Story from the time when the boarder was shifting, and its
about Abencerraje & Hermosa
Ab was a noble, had a lover (Jarifa) who snuck out
together in the night but he didn’t know that the
boarder changed; Christians took over the zone &
entered into Christian territory & they caught him
§
He said his last wish was to see his love, told him his
name so they could catch him, he went to see her
and in the end said "I'm going back to die"
§
Jews, Christians, and Muslims try to say that the hero
(Abencerraje) was theirs, therefore sharing something
That something is LOVE!!!
§
-
A boarder is not set, it is something that can also not only
separate, but also can be a source of wealth
-
Managing Cultural Diversity in the Ottoman Empire
Europe and africa were connected from the 8th century to the
15th
-
Ottoman empire born in the 14th century
-
Ottoman = present day Turkish
-
Morocco wasn’t part of the ottoman empire
-
Reached Vienna, but not Morocco
-
Collapsed beginning of the 20th C
-
The Millet System
Safeguard the interethnic and multi-confessional nature of
their empire
Larger than convivencia
Christians, Jews, shamanistic, Buddhist
1453 (Sultan Orhan): instituionalize difference
Created difference
§
The merit of such a system consisted in
Right to use language, own religious, cultural,
and educational institutions
protecting diversity from state interference
giving an official character to ecumenism and
multiculturalism
Enforcing a sense of belonging that transcend
ethno-religious references
§
-
Merit vs. blood
Was merit based on blood?
Military and diplomacy were based on MERIT not BLOOD
-
Critics of the millet:
Micro theocratic societies (giving too much power) (?)
Minorities, like the Albanians
Albania stayed marginalized
§
The millet was the route to all nationalities and when
the empire fell apart, all the nationalistic countries
suffered (especially countries in the Balkans)
§
-
Test
MC 20 Q
4-5 short answer on the readings
On everything up until now
Ex. MC
Which statement is true?
All of africa was in the Ottoman
-
Not morocco
-
Not algeria
-
Or not the middle east
-
Unit 2: Managing Cultural Diversity in
Moorish Iberian Peninsula & the Ottoman
Empire
Wednesday,* September* 27,*2017 6:34*PM

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Description
Unit 2: Managing Cultural Diversity in Moorish Iberian Peninsula & the Ottoman Empire Wednesday, September 27, 2016:34 PM The Maghreb Land of the Moors - Arab world is split in 2: Maghreb vs. Mashriq The Maghreb - Arabic word for "sunset" - 3 definitions of Maghreb 1. Old name for Morocco 2. Three afro-Mediterranean countries; Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia Similarities: Mediterranean & formerly colonized by France (colonial definition) 3. Arab definition- Libya & Mauritania are included in the Maghreb - The Maghreb serves as a bridge between the Middle East, Africa & Europe - Has a long cultural heritage: First human presence - Berbers (Amazigh) Berbers invaded by: Phoenician, Romans, Byzantines, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans, Greeks, Portuguese, Spanish, French (the list goes on!) - The definition of Maghreb has changed though The Moors - Mtis Mix of all of the invasions above, but mainly Arab-Amazigh - All over North Africa & Europe - Moor comes from Marra (means transit) - they were nomadic people - How do nomadic people build palaces, philosophy, etc? Bouraoui: nomadism as a psychological dispositionUnit 2: Managing Cultural Diversity in Moorish Iberian Peninsula & the Ottoman Empire Wednesday, September 27, 2016:34 PM The Maghreb Land of the Moors - Arab world is split in 2: Maghreb vs. Mashriq The Maghreb - Arabic word for "sunset" - 3 definitions of Maghreb 1. Old name for Morocco 2. Three afro-Mediterranean countries; Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia Similarities: Mediterranean & formerly colonized by France (colonial definition) 3. Arab definition- Libya & Mauritania are included in the Maghreb - The Maghreb serves as a bridge between the Middle Ea
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