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NO101 (17)
Lecture 4

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North American Studies
Kevin Spooner

 Canada and Immigration (Yip Sang (1845 - 1927))  Lecture Outline  Life of Yip Sang  Development of Institutional Racism  Exclusion and Adaptation  Gaining Civil rights and Chinese Family Immigration  Yip Sang (1845 - 1927)  Left China at the age of 19  Goes to San Francisco  Immigrates with hopes of better life  Begins work as a dishwasher, then a cook, then making cigar  Performs menially labour for a living  Could've moved to Canada in order to work on the Canadian Railway (may have overheard about work opportunities and decent pay)  Finds work as a book keeper rather than a labourer  Later becomes a time keeper; later becomes a pay master (responsible for distributing the wages of Chinese labourers); later promoted to Chinese Super-Intendant for the CPR (Canadian Pacific Railway) --> he's responsible for hiring these Chinese labourers  Ends up supervising 6000-7000 Chinese labourers  In 1885, takes his money and leaves Canada; goes back to China (only stays in China for 3 years; but very busy)  He marries 4 different wives while back in China (Lee Shee, Wong Shee, Dong Shee, Chin Shee)  He has 23 children  One of his sons becomes the first Chinese-Canadian doctors in Canada  Lee Shee dies in Canada  The other wives and the children all migrate to Canada  Comes back to Canada and almost immediately starts his own import-export business  Notices that Chinese-Canadians want things that they'd normally be able to get back home in China  Formed the Wing Sang company  He is ambitious and smart  Sells Chinese goods in Canada, and sells salted herring in China  Able to build Wing Sang Co. on Pender Street in Vancouver  Accumulated much money  The Wing Sang Co. building is one of the oldest surviving buildings in Chinatown in Vancouver  Nanaimo Chinatown, Pine Street  Starts fish packing plant  Hires Chinese-Canadians to work there  He almost single-handedly created Chinatown in Nanaimo  Started a Chinese school in Vancouver  Also financially supports education back home in China  He is one of 11 men that starts the Chinese Benevolence Association  Meant to take care of elderly Chinese-Canadians  The state would refuse to take care of and provide benefits for Chinese-Canadians  These people are moving back and forth between China and Canada  Transnational linkages  To tie BC to the rest of Canada, John A. Macdonald had to make a deal with BC to develop the CPR  Development of Institutional Racism (1858 - 1923)  1923 -- The Chinese Immigration/Exclusion Act was passed  Chinese-Canadians were subject to lots of gov't control and discrimination  Early 1880s, more than 11,000 Chinese came directly from China  Early 1880s, nation pushes to finish railway since BC wanted railway done, and not having it done would mean that the federal government would've violated the confederation (they'd have to pay BC a huge tax)  Farms are becoming less productive when the population is rising  Industrial expansion of western Canada is occurring at the same time  The Canada didn't see Chinese-Canadian labourers as ideal citizens  They were seen as a temporary solution to a worker shortage  The Head Tax  A $50 charge applied to all Chinese immigrants  Federal gov't didn't introduce the Head Tax sooner because they  1883, Sir John A. Macdonald stood up in the House of Commons and said "it will be all very well to exclude Chinese labour when we can replace it with white labour, but until that is done, it is better to have Chinese labour, than no labour at all."  Immigration is about economics (labour)  After the production of the railway, the Head Tax was implemented; the fed. Gov't continued to raise the fee (from $50 --> $100 --> $500)  This tax raises $2.5 million for the federal gov't  In 2006, the federal gov't apologized for having had this tax in place at all  In addition to the railway, Chinese-Canadians contributed to many other aspects of Canada  Contributed to development to all kinds of economic activities (i.e. mining, clearing land for agricultural purposes, roads, gardening, lumber industry, salmon and fishery, and domestic service)  Once wage scale starts to go up, white people start going after these better paying jobs  Compete with the Chinese-Canadians  Chinese-Canadians become scapegoats  Chinese-Canadians are pushed out of the very practices that they pioneered; white people got  Chinese people weren't allowed to buy or own crown la
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