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Lecture 3

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North American Studies
Kevin Spooner

LECTURE 3 Recap - Last Lecture (Thanadelthur)  First Nations women played an important role in the formation of the nation (mediation, translators, interpreters, negotiators).  Colonization was a process specific to its location; it operates in different ways in different spaces (Staples Theory/Thesis)  Colonialism and imperialism have been central in shaping Canada  The consequences of colonialism are still apparent in contemporary society (identity, place, belonging)  Mary Ann Shadd Cary  Multiculturalism, race, and Canadian realities (Past and Present)  "you have a right to your freedom and to every other privilege connected with it and if you cannot secure these in Virginia or Alabama, by all means make your escape without delay to some other locality in God's wide universe."  Born a "free black" in the state of Delaware  Father was very active (movements)  Pushed for the abolition of slavery (he is an abolitionist)  Their home was a stop on the underground railway, thus many slaves stayed at their house while making their journey through this railway  Their house was a stop or a safehouse  Fugitive Slave Act (1850)  Southern American states have slavery  Threatens escaped slaves with bondage  Fear that bounty hunters can enter pre-north slaves, capture slaves, bring them back to the south, and then get rewards from slave-owners for returning the escaped slaves  This made free blacks feel threatened  Mary Ann Shadd Cary settled in Windsor in 1851  Henry Bibb was her neighbour and they traveled around together  Bibb is a former slave  He owned a newspaper called "Voice of the Fugitive" (a very apt title considering he is a fugitive and the writings are his "voice")  He's a staunch separatist  He believes it's safest for blacks and whites to live separately (in separate communities)  Comes to this view due to his personal experience  His wife, Mary Bibb, opens a segregated school for only blacks  Mary Ann Shadd Cary opened a school for whites and blacks  She wrote that Canada is a good place and that all blacks should immigrate to Canada  Bibb is displeased by this notion and is in opposition with Shadd's views  Shadd starts a newspaper called the "Provincial Freeman"  Starts the paper and becomes the editor  She was the first black female editor and publisher of a newspaper in North America  She disassociates herself with the "Canada Movement" by the 1850's  Disassociates with those arguing for immigration  Married Thomas Cary in the 1850's  She moved back to Chadham and told her husband that he can come with her or not but she is going back to her home  She is strong-willed and independent  She opened another "mixed-race" school in Chadham  Her paper begins collapsing  The American Civil War began (1852?)  Chadd Cary went back to the US to recruit black soldiers for the civil war  When the war ends and the 13th amendment is passed (since the North won; 13th amendment abolishes slavery), Chadd Cary moved to Detroit, but not before she obtained a British citizenship (so that she can move back in forth b/w Canada and the US)  Shadd Cary's Naturalization Certificate (1862)  She's the first woman to enroll at Howard Law School  Received a law degree at the age of 60 in 1880  Passed away in 1890  Underground Railroad  From 1850 - 1860, the Underground Railroad was really in use  Not sure exactly how many slaves came to Canada but 30,000 seems to be commonly accepted as an estimate  Josiah Henson  Multiculturalism is a Chartered right in Canada  This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multiculturalism hertiage of Canadians  Shadd Cary, a very keen and vocal advocate of Canada --> why did she live her remaining years of her life in the States???  Slavery in British North America (Canada)  As early as the 1600's, the French brought slaves here  Transported directly from Africa to be sold in Canada in 1629  Slavery was legal in New France  In 1759 (the conquest; control shifted from the French to the British), there were more than 3600 reported slaves in New France (1100 were black)  The remaining 2500 were First Nations slaves; French Canadians actually preferred First Nations  Under the British, slaves continued to be non-persons under the law as they were under French rule  Slaves were seen as
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