No101 September 26, 2012
Land and People: Patterns of Settlement
Exam: connecting Canada, USA and Mexico
How or Why Does Size Matter?
• Commonalities in the history and development of Canada, the US and Mexico due to size:
– Struggle for the occupation and settlement of the land
– Extraction of resources
– Building of transportation systems
– Need to attract immigrants
– Political struggle between central and regional governments
-all countries have struggled for occupation/ settlement
-ex invasion/ land grab (Texas) Mexico was too big to fully settle
-attract immigrants –Mexico less so
Does Geography Matter Now?
• How was the interior of the continent “discovered”?
• How do transportation networks shape our understanding of each nation and change the fate of cities and
towns? (i.e. Winnipeg, “gateway to the West”; or Montreal before the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway).
• Waterways, railways, highways and now?
-transport – should Canada naturally flow East to West or North to South?
-St. Lawrence Seaway vs Great Lakes (furtrade)
-Winnipeg – gateway (Key! To trade)
-Missouri River—St. Louis (river ended here)
-Montreal vs Toronto (when was Montreal replaced as most important city? After referendum, also the Port of
Montreal no longer a stopping point 1959)—train continues through
Example: The Whoop Up Trail (19 century)
• Connected Fort Benton, MT and Forts in Southern Alberta (near today’s Lethbridge and Calgary); it took six
weeks by wagon
• Fort Benton was at the headwaters of the Missouri river and thus connected to Saint Louis by steam ship
• Whoop Up Country
• The coming of the railroads changed the fate of the town and connected the Canadian Forts to the rest of
• The railroads divided the western region and brought Alberta and Sask. Into Canada.
-Fort Whoop Up (region of the West)
-Fort Benton (before train/ railroad was important for trade) 1870
-Major cowboy/ whiskey town in USA -brought whiskey North to Canada to sell to the Natives for fur (currency at the time), built forts, flew the
American flag and traded bug juice (alcohol mixed with tobacco)
-Native tribes are in the area but no “Canadian” presence and no supervision – the US presence is an issue
-6 week travel route via horse and buggy to bring the whiskey from Benton to Whoop Up
-North West Mounted Police built a fort in the area – the fort kicked the US out, but they needed food and supplies
(which were shipped through Montreal)
-easiest to ship through Benton
-USA realized they could take this part of the West
1880s – Railroad (things no longer shipped through USA)
-connected all Canadian forts
-removed need for steam ships
-for Natives the border was a shared region and they crossed unquestioned
-Mother Nature and politicians don’t think a like
-ex political and geographical borders are different
What is a Region?
• Culture, language?
• States, provinces (many US states and Canadian provinces have regions within them)
• Urbanites vs. rural and/or suburban dwellers
• “With current technological transformations, physical characteristics (of regions) are starting to lose some of
their power.” ( No 101 course pack p. 44). Do you agree?
-19 C Whoop Up was a region (traded in British and American currency and officers of both in Fort Benton, two
countries living together)
-shifting- historically changing
-Quebec + Vermont (different places but similar)
-no agreement on regions beginning and ending
-rural vs urban voting –population differences (size)
- is a city a region?
-Americans live in Suburbs –historically and statistically
-cities are dangerous
-don’t invest $ into their cities
-separates outside world from people within the region
The United States
• 3rd largest country in population
• 4 largest in size
• Varied physical environment (arctic tundra, subtropical rainforests, natural harbours, arid deserts, fertile
• 200 cities with 100,000 more people; however the majority of Americans live in what we could call ‘suburban’
-how has Canada managed to be so close but so spread out -many regions of the USA
The transformation of the Plains – seen as a formidable land, sparsely populated. Mechanization of farming and
railroad development are key in the transformation of this area.
How have people shaped and been shaped by the land?
• Offshoot of Jamestown, Virginia (Chesapeake Bay)
• Oldest permanent European settlements
• Indians were removed from the South
• Four of the first five presidents were Virginians
• Regional identity: legacies of slavery, plantation culture, warm climate and failed attempt to separate from the
• Colonial staple crops – tobacco, cotton, rice and sugar
• Up until 1970, operated mostly as a colony of the North, supplying cheap labour and raw materials.
• New South is part of the Sun Belt – high immigration and job growth as foreign investors are investing in
Southern cities in exchange for tax relief, pollution waivers and non-unionized workers.
• Growth in US military (majority of bases are in the South, i.e. Fort Bragg, in NC)
• Retirees have also brought money and development to parts of the South
-Additional slide notes: Most religious, least educated and lowest paid in the country.
-the nightmare (Jamestown)
-their colony was unsuccessful
-Trail of Tears
- Natives in the South moved, they were in the South originally
-New Mexico, Arizona
-crucial for the American Civil War
-Natives fought on a side depending on how their tribe viewed slavery
-Battle of Antidum (spelling?)
-massive investment in the South and disinvestment in the North
-less labour unions in the South and less paid wages
-huge investment in military in the South (Fort Bragg is largest)
-industries brought by the base
North- the dream
• Offshoot of Plymouth Puritans
• Long associated with core American values of religious freedom, cultural diversity, liberty, capitalism,
democracy, work and education
• Puritan beliefs in the middle-class values of hard work and individual uplift
• Industrial revolution first arrived in America in Boston and then spread to elsewhere in the North (textile and
flour mills, weapons, shipbuilding etc.) Midwest- talk with a twang
• Extension of the North; settled by immigration streaming westward from northern States in the aftermath of
the American Revolution and the War of 1812.
• Huge populations descended from Germans, Irish, Scandinavians and Ukrainians.
• “Heartland” of America and/or American core values
-Cleveland Western Reserve
-land reserved for the soldiers
-core values/ heartland
-who ever won Ohio won presidency in the past 8 elections
-no longer heartland—maybe farther West?
-agricultural based –supply staples (food, etc) to the country
• In addition to farming, dairy-making, meatpacking, the Midwest has large cities that have known good and bad
• African Americans from the South migrated to these industrial cities in great numbers
• Some cities are experiencing urban renewal (Chicago); some are not (Cleveland; Detroit).
-disinvestment of these cities
-going to Arizona to retire—bringing retirement money and requesting infrastructure
-Chicago—dream and the nightmare
-uneven development in USA
West- (The Big West)
• Big states and small populations
• Sizeable Native Indian population
• These states into the Union after the American Revolution and the Civil War decided what kind of nation
America would become
• Yet, the West looms large in the popular perception of Americans (thanks to Hollywood) and in the perceptions
outsiders have of America (i.e. The Wild West)
• The West is “the frontier”; that space where man is tested, where the pioneer spirit prevails; that vast territory
waiting to be “filled”.
• Into the Wild
• One Week
-came into the Union after the Civil War
-spill over zone for Civil War (battle area) and people who fought against each other are living together there
-USA has enough land to absorb violence and everyone still had eno