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Lecture 2

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North American Studies
Kevin Spooner

Week 2: Thanadelthur January 16, 2013 Thanadelthur  1697-1717  Governor James Knight – “She was one of a very high spirit and of the firmest resolution that ever I see any body in my days and of great courage and forecast  Captured by Cree, escaped with another woman o Noticed that Cree had goods they haven’t seen before, e.g.) kitchen utensils o Escaped and tried to find the Europeans, who were providing Cree with these goods o Eventually comes across a party of traders and returns with them to York Factory in Manitoba o James Knight sees in her an opportunity – she represented possibility of beginning trade relations with Chippawaian o Knight knows there needs to be peace between Cree and Chippawain in order for him to trade with both groups o 1715, persuades Cree guards to go with Thanadelthur to go encounter Chippawain and form peace  Many fall sick, starving  All turn back except thanadelthur, stuart, and a dozen guards o Group encounters a massacre scene – group of Chippawain killed by Cree o Cree want to leave, she convinces them to stay, goes and finds her people to accompany her back to Cree camp  She mediates peace o As a sign of respect, Knight invited her to spend winter inside the fort – not typical o Her mission for next year would be to lead them to find gold o She ends up dying in the fort that winter  She suffered some disease from living in closed quarters  As she’s dying, she’s leaving instructions on how to build good relations between the two groups  What to learn from this life? o Significance of role of First Nations in shaping Canada o Impact of gender on development of relations between first nations and Europeans o Importance of the fur trade as part of the economic development of Canada o European attitudes and the potential for conflict Pre-Contact Period  Original inhabitants migrated through Asia through Beringia, which used to exist o Between 20 and 40 thousand years ago  Highest population concentration of Canada has been along the West Coast  1000 BCE, indigenous ppl occupied all of what is now Canada – migrated from west all the way to east  During this period, between 500 000 to 2 million of these ppl  Despite this evidence, First Nations people believe they have always been in North America, it is their ancestral land  Their connection to the land is essential to survival – adapted to the land all over north America o Symbiotic relationship with the land – they sustain land, land sustains them  Indigenous in NA are extremely heterogeneous – very diverse group o There were 60 diff nations in what we now call Canada o 52 diff aboriginal languages Contact  Earliest European exploration o Cabot and newfoundland, 1497 o Cartier and the St. Lawrence, 1534 o Frobisher and the northwest passage, 1570s o Hudson and the Hudson’s Bay, 1610 o Champlain and the St. Lawrence (and inland rivers), 1600s  These revealed no evidence of wealthy civilizations  Do find evidence of resources – fish, beave
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