Class Notes (838,924)
Canada (511,149)
NO110 (14)
Lecture 3

Week 3.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

North American Studies
Kevin Spooner

Week 3: Mary Ann Shad Cary January 23, 2013 Recap of last lecture  First nations women played an important role in the formation of the nation (mediators, translators, interpreters, negotiators)  Colonization was a process specific to its location; it operates in different ways in different places (staples theory/thesis)  Colonialism and imperialism have been central in shaping Canada  The consequences of colonialism are still apparent in contemporary society (identity, place, belonging)  Fugitive slave act (1850) o She was born a free black in Delaware – father was politically active in abolitionist groups o Their home was a stop on the underground railroad o Up until 1850, southern states are slave states and northern states are free states  The fugitive slave act threatens free northern blacks o 1850 – Shad Cary and father attend meeting in Toronto to discuss black immigration o Settles in 1851 in Windsor  Henry Bibb o Neighboring community of Shad Cary o Publisher of the voice of the fugitive o Was a former slave o Is a separatist – safest for blacks and whites to live separately o His wife Mary Bibb opens a segregated school for black children in Windsor  Shad opens an integrated school – where all children learn together o Wrote articles that all blacks should emigrate to Canada  Bibb begins to criticize Shad Cary – takes opposite view  Shad Cary – begins publication of own newspaper the provincial freeman o Is the first black female editor in North America  By mid-1850s, Shad begins to distance herself from those arguing for emigration o Marries a Toronto barber – Thomas Cary o Opens another integrated school in Chatham  By 1860 – American Civil War begins o Between northern and southern states o She decides to go back to US and recruits black soldiers for the union army (north) o War ends and 13 amendment is passed (north wins)  Abolishes slavery o She then decides to move to Detroit, but first attained her British citizenship (1862) o Then moves to Washington and becomes first woman to enroll in Howard law school  Received law degree at age of 60 (1883)  Dies 10 years later (1893)  Underground railroad is most popular reference to the black Canadian experience o 30,000 make it to canada (1840-1860) o Most active from 1850-1860 (after fugitive slave act was passed)  Josiah Henson o Born a slave and escapes to Canada in 1830  1982 – embedded in new Canadian charter o Canada is a multicultural nation o Significant part of our national identity  Shad Cary – very keen about Canada o Lives out her last years in America  Slavery in British north America o Did exist in BNA o Brought to Canada first by the French in 1608 o First slave transported directly from Africa for sale in Canada in 1629 o Slavery was entirely legal in new France o By conquest in 1759 (transfer of colonial power form French to British) – 3600 slaves in new France  Out of 3600, 1100 were black  Remainder were the first nations people  French preferred natives as slaves over blacks  No change in legal status of slaves – they are non-persons  Entirely to be seen as property o After 1783 – end of American revolution, slavery expands in upper Canada  British loyalists fled from America and brought with them their slaves  Tends to decline by 1790s o 1833/1834 slavery is abolished in British empire  John Graves Simcoe o First lieutenant-Governer of Upper Canada o Challenges the legality of slavery (doesn’t abolish it) – but finds it problematic o Instead of abolishing, we should have a process of gradual emancipation – as blacks are born they will be free  Slavery was so important to southern states because economy (cotton plantation
More Less

Related notes for NO110

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.