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NO110 (14)
Lecture 3

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Department
North American Studies
Course
NO110
Professor
Kevin Spooner
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 3: Mary Ann Shad Cary January 23, 2013 Recap of last lecture  First nations women played an important role in the formation of the nation (mediators, translators, interpreters, negotiators)  Colonization was a process specific to its location; it operates in different ways in different places (staples theory/thesis)  Colonialism and imperialism have been central in shaping Canada  The consequences of colonialism are still apparent in contemporary society (identity, place, belonging)  Fugitive slave act (1850) o She was born a free black in Delaware – father was politically active in abolitionist groups o Their home was a stop on the underground railroad o Up until 1850, southern states are slave states and northern states are free states  The fugitive slave act threatens free northern blacks o 1850 – Shad Cary and father attend meeting in Toronto to discuss black immigration o Settles in 1851 in Windsor  Henry Bibb o Neighboring community of Shad Cary o Publisher of the voice of the fugitive o Was a former slave o Is a separatist – safest for blacks and whites to live separately o His wife Mary Bibb opens a segregated school for black children in Windsor  Shad opens an integrated school – where all children learn together o Wrote articles that all blacks should emigrate to Canada  Bibb begins to criticize Shad Cary – takes opposite view  Shad Cary – begins publication of own newspaper the provincial freeman o Is the first black female editor in North America  By mid-1850s, Shad begins to distance herself from those arguing for emigration o Marries a Toronto barber – Thomas Cary o Opens another integrated school in Chatham  By 1860 – American Civil War begins o Between northern and southern states o She decides to go back to US and recruits black soldiers for the union army (north) o War ends and 13 amendment is passed (north wins)  Abolishes slavery o She then decides to move to Detroit, but first attained her British citizenship (1862) o Then moves to Washington and becomes first woman to enroll in Howard law school  Received law degree at age of 60 (1883)  Dies 10 years later (1893)  Underground railroad is most popular reference to the black Canadian experience o 30,000 make it to canada (1840-1860) o Most active from 1850-1860 (after fugitive slave act was passed)  Josiah Henson o Born a slave and escapes to Canada in 1830  1982 – embedded in new Canadian charter o Canada is a multicultural nation o Significant part of our national identity  Shad Cary – very keen about Canada o Lives out her last years in America  Slavery in British north America o Did exist in BNA o Brought to Canada first by the French in 1608 o First slave transported directly from Africa for sale in Canada in 1629 o Slavery was entirely legal in new France o By conquest in 1759 (transfer of colonial power form French to British) – 3600 slaves in new France  Out of 3600, 1100 were black  Remainder were the first nations people  French preferred natives as slaves over blacks  No change in legal status of slaves – they are non-persons  Entirely to be seen as property o After 1783 – end of American revolution, slavery expands in upper Canada  British loyalists fled from America and brought with them their slaves  Tends to decline by 1790s o 1833/1834 slavery is abolished in British empire  John Graves Simcoe o First lieutenant-Governer of Upper Canada o Challenges the legality of slavery (doesn’t abolish it) – but finds it problematic o Instead of abolishing, we should have a process of gradual emancipation – as blacks are born they will be free  Slavery was so important to southern states because economy (cotton plantation
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