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NO110 (14)

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Wilfrid Laurier University
North American Studies
Kevin Spooner

Thanadelthur- First Nations in Canada: - 1697-1717 - She’s an indigenous woman - Communities at that time captured people to have a population - She was one of those people - She managed to escape with another woman - They wanted to make it back to their people - And the source of the goods the people had - The Cree had this but she didn’t - She wanted to know where this came from - Trying to find the source of the trade - Happened in Northern Manitoba - Her companion starves to death - She survives, finds her people and the European traders - They take her to York Factory which is where they were from - James Knight who is the governor of the factory, sees the idea to establish trades with her groups - This would mean he would need to make peace - Knights figures that he has to make peace with both groups - He sees her as the key to this plan - He persuades his Cree guards to visit her group (Chipewyan) to discuss peace - They find 9 murdered Chipewyan people and they didn’t want them to find out about this because they would think that the Cree killed them - She tells them to not go any further and she will talk to them herself - She manages to do this after 10 days - After a lot of convincing she gets a group of them to talk to the Cree - Stuart who was the head of this was amazed at how she could settle this peace - Stuart “indeed she has a devilish spirit” - They return to York Factory in May 1716 - Often they make peace in a fort this time they spent the winter inside the factory - What was being planned was a new post so that they could make trade - She keeps talking about the evidence of a yellow metal that was around Churchill - She is so keen and forceful about this plan - Unfortunately she becomes ill and dies in the winter - Even on her death bed she gave instructions on how to conduct the peace to Stuart and Knight - Knight is extremely touched by this friendship he had with her - She is well known and hundreds and thousands of indigenous women who did the same thing as her Pre-Contact: - At least 40 thousand years ago - The highest population concentrations were thought to be along the pacific coast - We also have archeological evidence that these areas were populated - 2 million indigenous Canadians living in Canada - pre contact is before any contact with Euorpeans - indigenous Canadians believe they have always been here, that the creator placed them there - Their teachings tell them that - They are spread from one coast to another coast - In all cases they adapted themselves - There is a sense of a symbiotic relationship between the communities and the environment that they lived - You had to have a solid relationship with the land that fed you - Indigineous canadians are incredibly mixed and diverse - They are the creators of the multicultural state - They are incredibly diverse - They spoke 60 different languages pre contact Contact: - Connection between Euopeans and Canadians - British and French exploration - Frobisher in the 1570s looking at the North west passage - Henry Hudson in 1610, Hudsons bay - That was British exploration - Champlain is the 1600 - Europeans are probing - They didn’t encounter any evidence of wealthy civilization - They are finding resources that could be exploited - That means that colonization is going to happen differently - Cooperation by necessity - Much less genocidal - Public executions were crowd pleasers - European civilization is questionable
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