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PP 110 - sound argument.docx

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Ashwani Peetush

Sound Argument  Must meet 2 conditions 1. Validity – minimum requirement (refer to “What is an argument?” note) 2. True premises o ***these are the rules to correct reasoning  Ex. All humans are mammals o Dylan Thomas was a human being o Thomas was a mammal  Ex. if you add Vodka to your life, your nights will be filled with excitement o Implicit premise/assumption: nights filled with excitement are desirable o Conclusion: you should add vodka to your life (i.e. purchase vodka) o Is this a good argument? Why or why not?  No, because the premises are not true (premises are questionable)  In fact, it could make your life worse  Vodka is not the only way to add excitement to your life  Ex. If it rains, the ground is wet o The ground is wet o Conclusion: it is raining o *this fallacy is called affirming the consequent  Not necessarily true because the wet ground could have been caused by other possible factors  A>B; B is desirable; therefore A  Ex. if it rains, the ground is wet o It is raining o Conclusion: the ground is wet o *not a fallacy, called modus ponens Informal Fallacies of Argument  Ad hominem o Irrelevant: Jack argues that we ought not to kill animals for own purposes, such as food, because they suffer just like us. And, to cause unnecessary suffering is wrong. But Jack is a nerdy philosophy student, so he can’t be right  not a good argument because the character/personality of Jack has nothing to do with the validity or the truth of the premises and the conclusion or validity of the argument o Relevant: One except
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