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Lecture 4

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Dwayne Moore

 Philosophy of Mind  Reasoning Skills - Analogy o An analogy compares the current argument to a similar argument in another (more recognizable) domain for the purpose of proving the current argument valid o An analogy is good if the comparison is relevantly similar o An analogy is false if the comparison is similar, but not relevantly similar  Materialism/Only Idealism/Only Matter Exists Mind Exists Eliminative Type Functionalism Epiphenomenalism Cartesian Materialism Identity Dualism Theory  Materialist Monism:  Eliminative materialism  Type identity theory  Dualism  Epiphenomenalism  Cartesian Dualism  Materialist Monism: o There is only one substance (monism), and it's material  Ex: eliminative materialism, type identity theory o There is also a view where there's only one substance (monism), and it's mental (idealism)  Dualism: o There are two substances (dualism), one material and the other mental  Ex: Cartesian Dualism, Epiphenomenalism  Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650) o On Matter:  "I observed that nothing at all belonged to the nature and the essence of body except that it was a thing with length and breadth and depth, admitting of various shapes and various motions" - Descartes, Meditations (Reply to Sixth Objection)  Matter/physical is extended substance with the properties that appear in the laws of physics, and obey the laws of physics o On Mind:  The "I", the "mind", the "self" is a thinking thing  "But what then am I? A thing that thinks. What is that? A thing that doubts, understands, affirms, denies, is willing, Is unwilling, and also imagine and has sensory experience." - Descartes, Meditations o Recall Reid's argument about personal identity: beliefs/desires change, but the thinker, conscious "I" doesn't change o Hume argued that this "thinker" cannot be seen, so it doesn't exist o For Reid and Descartes, this thinker is required because there must be a thinker of thoughts, a desirer of desires  The Distinction b/w Matter and Mind o For Descartes, matter = extended things having mass/motion/length/breadth/thickness o For Descartes, mind = thinking things having thoughts/desires o Extending things with mass/motion != thinking things with feelings/thoughts o Can you have a pound of hope? No. How sad are you that the Raptors lost? Six inches of sadness? No. o So, there are two distinct substances, a body that is extended in space, and a mind that thinks o Descartes:  "On the one had I have a clear and distinct idea of myself, in so far as I am simply a thinking, no-extended thin; and on the other hand I have a distinct idea of body, in so far as this is simply an extended…" o Summary:  Descartes say that mind thinks , and matter doesn't  Descartes thinks that matter is extended in space, and mind isn't  If A and B have different properties they're different. The mind and matter have these different properties, so they're different  Leibniz' Law - Indiscernibility of Identicals o If A is B, then every property that A has, B will have and vice versa o In order for a thing to be itself, it must be the same as itself in every way  Descartes on Interactionist Dualism o We know that Descartes is a dualist o Two types of dualism:  Interactionalist dualism --> the body influences the mind and the mind influences the body  Epiphenomenalism --> the body influences the mind but the mind does not influence the body o "There arises a certain dryness in the throat; this sets in motion the nerves of the throat, which in turn move the inner parts of the brain. This motion produces in the mind the sensation of thirst." - Descartes, Meditation 6 o "And the activity of the soul consists entirely in the fact that simply by wiling something it brings it about that the little gland to which it is closely joined moves in the manner required to produce the effect corresponding to this volition." - Descartes, Passions of the Soul  Body --> Mind --> Body  The Contact Objection to interactionist Dualism o Princess Elizabeth, Letter to Descartes, May 1643  How can something immaterial (thoughts/mind) move something material (body)  Descartes Analogy Physical objects can causally interact w/o conta
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