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PP224 Module 2 Notes.docx

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Byron Williston

Module 2 Notes Animal Welfarism Speciesism: The view that the values or interests of one species have greater weight than those of other species Racism: The view that being a member of a privileged race is necessary and sufficient for moral standing; and Sexism: The view that being a member of a privileged gender is necessary and sufficient for moral standing  Mark Sagoff’s central claim is that we are mistaken to focus on animal welfare because this position is too individualist. That is, it sees individual animals as the focus of our moral attention, whereas the focus for real environmentalists should be groups of animals or species for instance. Biocentrism Biocentrism: The view that living things as such can benefit from and be harmed by humans actions and that this fact places moral constraints on how we are permitted to treat them For something to have rights:  The thing can institute legal action at its behest  The thing can be injured  Legal relief must be aimed at benefiting the thing Biocentric Egalitarianism  Humans are “members of Earth’s community of life”. We need the biosphere much more than it needs us  The biosphere is a complex web of causally interdependent systems  Each living thing is a ‘teleological centre’  Humans are not su
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