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PP218 course notes

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Christy Landry

Existentialism continuation of revolt against Western Rationalism against knowing the world through reason recognizes unresolvable confusion disorientation forlornnessrealization of selfconsciousness living in a world into which we are thrown throwing away doctrines traditions authority reason disorientation after decline of church increase in technology World Wars the world is confusing Modern age was full of individualism reason Existentialism as a philosophy as expression as a way of viewing the world that once you have seen you cannot go back Existentialism shows the world is inherently without meaning one asks what have I done Who have I beenSelfconsciousnessawareness that there is no self its an ideal chosen course of action values something one creates in the world Particularly western as an idea It is a subjective perspective Kierkegaard 18131855 grandfather of existentialism Christian existentialist wrote under many pseudonyms to avoid his works being used as a system and also to place the responsibility on the reader focus on subjectivity argued with Plato that reality is not universal and cant be systemizedargued with Hegellife as reconciliation of appearance and truth to find Truth emphasison universal and community this makes the thinker unimportant when she is the one doing the thinking people are not indifferent we must take responsibility with how we live life is paradoxical ambiguous and not rational rationalism seems final but life is about perpetual striving argues empiricism knowledge through senses saying that we can only know through inward nessfaith God cant be known objectively and one must perpetually question and strive for the relationship with Him The absurd believing in God is believing the absurd cant be made sense of with reason it is selfdeceptive No one can tell you of faith but that is telling you how to have faithyou must view God subjectively which relies on inwardness and faith you must take risk Christianity is necessary to be aware of the paradox makes you aware of yourself God is not in time or space but can be thought of Humans are also a contradiction abstract concrete universal and particularOur degree of inwardness is proportionate to the degree of objective insecurityAesthetic shallow doing whatever you want sensual pleasureEthical performing societys moral duties give up individualityReligious absolute duty to God Tragic hero courageously chooses to do what is ethical instead of what they wish to do Knight of faith Abraham past the realm of ethical faith the most important task of a human anxiety is the result of a Leap of Faith Schopenhauer subject isprior to the world and experience indefinite Phenomenal vs Noumenal reality thing in itselfWill is the thing in itselfWill blind to universal force irrational shapes reason to accomplish hidden ends can be brought to consciousness by thought Will is to live survive continue Happiness pointless pursuit of happiness never ends and is sufferingOne needs to cease to take desires seriously be passive pure intellect Salvation is indifference to the world NietzscheRejects passivism self awareness through ethical matters We must assign greater value from one thing than another to make any choice in life What we value is what it means to be an existing individual also significant what we do with values considering our values makes us existentially aware Ethical individual is not fully selfaware unwilling to face the fact that values are a responsibility Rule following is a way to avoid facing one self relies on objective realm of certainty Death of God idea of God hinders human progressallows us to avoid responsibility and become lazy There is no universal code no action is right or wrong and we are free to create our own values Death of God is freedom and terrifying We can be masters of ourselves Nihlism negation of one or more supposedly meaningful aspects of life Nihlist existentialism life is without objective meaning purpose Nietzsche is a bit nihilist and a bit not Three metamorphoses Camel listens to the morals of everyone carries them around
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