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Political Science
Christopher Anderson

Week 12: Political Violence Recap: Shift between Cold war and post-cold war era; and the emphasis on state security versus human security. Political violence  important way to think of how to achieve security -after the Cold war, we have more access to the effects of political violence, the consequences are more immediately known -we understand more clearly the connection between political violence and human security/development; are there ways of breaking the cycle between them? -what forms of global governance might help? (R2P, development -we had a bipolar stability during the Cold war, a balance of power; now we’re not sure what kind we have presently Lecture objectives • Define political violence, identify its relationship to power and politics, and note certain features under globalization • Explore interrelations between recent trends in political violence and human development/ security ================= Political Violence The use of physical force to affect power relations.  Arenas of politics  a metaphor = amphitheatre; a violence inherent in politics  Power over others  can be physical oppression  The state entails political violence  the state is able to monopolize the use of legitimate force (Authorize violence: military, police) The key to politics is how the use of political violence is institutionalized.  The use of violence as a means to an ends is the connection to politics (a power relation)  Institutionalization: o Eg. In a failed state there is no institutionalization; political actors have no monopoly over the force and therefore all over the place, used by non political actors as well  Use: How you may achieve power o Authoritarian: state does monopolize the force (secret police, military); state’s monopoly not legitimized in eyes of public, contested and overthrown  Use: How you maintain power b/c you have no other way to maintain it o Liberal democracy: monopoly deemed to be legitimate (in most cases)  Marginalizes (absorbs) military/political violence  not seen to be a relevant to everyday politics, bound “to be used if necessary” ================== Political Violence and Globalization • Removal of stabilizing features of the Cold War • Was uneven, but still offered stability; channelled through east-west conflict/framework • Had an overarching framework, now it’s harder to anticipate • Societies subject to destabilizing forces of economic globalization – shift to identity-based mobilization • States face forces beyond their control; shifting • Identity is what you mobilize on now (creates insiders/outsiders, identity cannot be changed, creates violent outbreaks of conflict) • New conflicts over key economic resources for the global market • Patterns of trade, smuggling, production, etc. harder to control now; more avenues to travel; more conflict and violence linked into how to obtain resources • Increase gap between haves and have-nots – young people with few options • Mapped onto identity; if young people have few options, they are more likely to join militia, leads to greater instability • Increased financial and personal mobility, developments in telecommunications, facilitate non- state violence • Non state actors have more ability to act outside of their own borders, without being tracked, etc. • Arms trade and private militias • Easier to obtain small caches of weapons • Private militia can be hired and fuel/support political violence • Increased knowledge produces push for human security • Recognize and understand implications at a greater detail • Pursue and understand new actions we can take to combat violence ================== Type conflicts have changed since cold war era ended; there is technically less conflict yet because we have mo
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