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PO111 Lecture Notes, Various Chapters

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Political Science
Laura Allan

Power;Lecture3&4 9/17/20136:03:00AM Who hasthe ability to exercise power? [it’s the person who has the authority] -comes back to the ideaof authority and legitimacy what is authority? isthe right to exercise power that isacceptedbythe governed aslegitimate -it also comes down to the granting ofrightsandresponsibilitiestoparticular individualsand groupsso they can perform a communityfunction -society isgoverned bythe idea that weaccept thatcertainpeoplewillhaveauthorityover us -we often use uniformsto establish whether ornotsomeonecan exert authorityover us; without thispeople on their own lack thisauthority -thiscounts associally approved becausethemassesin generalagreetothis -the power isn’t given to the person; rather the institution theyrepresentget thepower and due to association to that institution theyhaveitaswell 3 types of authority: traditional:like a king,usually in earlier history,power wasincertainindividuals,often because of heredity or custom. -often timesthispower went unquestioned and incontestable -today that would be theequivalent totheroyalfamily;however thepower thereismore symbolic asopposed to ruling charismatic: -also invested in individualsbecause ofwhotheyare,rather thangrounded intradition they receive theauthority throughtheir charisma -they can mobilize a population,grounded inpersonalquality -these emerge in times of crisisor massivechange,peoplearedrawntothemfor awayfor coping or for guidance (think Hitler,Mussolini, etc. ) -these 2 formsof leadership are harder tofind rational legal -replaced the other 2 formsin most cases,more commonform -impersonal,not based on the individualor their familybackground,theirpersonality,etc. -derived from their position; once thatposition is gonesoistheauthority (think like a professor ora police officer) -based on the rule of lawin society, on bureaucratic,impersonalrules -they need to win legitimacy though afair processlikean electionor atrainingprogram -legitimacyisalso linked to the leader’sperformance; thebetter theleader performsat their job the more legitimatethey seem thusthemorerespect theygainfromthosetheyexercise authority over -if the performance iscorruptthere arealwayswaystochallengethatauthority does authority ever need to be resisted? common good -uniformly decided ideal that encompasseswhatisgoodforthepoliticalcommunityorthe population at hand asa whole (think of thingslike law enforcing,healthcare,educationrights,ahealthyeconomy) -the common good can often be argued bycritics -people argue that thingslike educationand healthcarecanbeprovided bythemarket as opposed to the government; people argue thatthe choiceshould bethereastohowmuchyou pay for such services -a democracy usually promotesthe commongood thebest -people who don’t really see the idea ofthecommongoodasapositivetakean individualistic perception;that it isour responsibility topursue our own individualneed without government interference -they believe the common good can beachievedthroughindividuals,theydobelieveina common good however the state, nationalism and globalization the state: an independent, self government politicalcommunitywho’sgovernment institutionshave the ability to make rulesthatarebondingon thepopulationthatresides within the given territory (the textbook definition) -the state functionsbecause we give theseinstitutionsthepower togovern us OR an institution that claimsthe legitimateuseofforce inenforcingitsorderwithinagiven territorialarea (the weber definition) -think of what happenedin Haiti,howrebelscameintopolice stationsand homesand over time beganto take overallgovernment establishments,withtheeventualgoaloftakingover the capital (if they were to achieve this,it would mean thestate isfallingapart) state examples: Singapore,France,theVatican,Denmark, etc. -note; there isno form of higher authorityoutsidethestate thanthestateitself [no governing body cancontrolCanadaasastatemore thanCanadaitself] historical markers; the state the Peace of Westphalia-30year war inEurope,allabout religion.It involved certain countries wanting to convert each other to oneor theother -in the end the final choice wasmadebyalltheleaders; stated thatthestatesthemselvescan make the choice of religion,no longer areason togotowar against other states. -it nowbecame up to the ruler to make suchachoice,withnoinfluence fromother states, The French Revolution of 1789 -before thisthe monarchhad all the power,inother wordstheFrenchking -it wasdecided the sovereignty rested onthe handsofthepeople Capitalism and the industrial revolution -the huge economic change brought onsuchachangethateven amonarchcould notcontrol, the market itself needsan infrastructure[think roadsand railways] andregulations The difference between the state and the government? [-note: a state isan independent structureoflawsand institutionsthatrulersareentrusted to administer] [a government, like parliament forexample,thatmakedecisionsand oversee their implementation on behalf of the state ,but membersofparliament for examplechangeover time,can be voted in orout ] -people who exercise the authority ofthestate,however theyarenotthe state,and theycan change -the responsibilities they uphold, however [think someonein chargeoftheministryofhealth or transportation] don’tchange -the government isthewho [who getsitdone] and the how [the action plantoget itdone] of the state -the state ismuch broader,much morepermanent what does the state include? federal,provincialand municipalgovernments, military and police force various government ministries state owned corporations(i.e. petro Canada,air Canada) courts/a judicialsystem the bank of Canada what does the state do? [note:there isoverlap,the governmentdoessomeofthosethingstoo] -lawand order andresolving conflicts -security -support for economic activity [we stillbuild roadsandairports,the market needsthesethingstofunction] [they can even goasfarasusing representativesinother embassy’sinother nationstohelp promote Canadiantradeand such] -physical infrastructure -socialinfrastructure; healthcare, education,etc. -environment (most nationshave this,but notall,Canadaisincluded inthis) allstateshave the same idea of sovereignty -2 dimensionsof sovereignty a) the internal way a state functions,thestate isthehighest authoritywithinitsown country b) sovereignty also meansstatesarenotsubjecttotheauthorityofotheroutsiders, meaning other nationsand their states -thisdoesn’t mean any nation never hasan obligationtoother countries; wesign treaties allthe time between countriesand ifbroken youhavean obligationtoreaptheretributions why is non-intervention so important? -it wasput in place to promote peaceessentially -however you must maintain balancebetween non-interventionandresponsibility to protect nation state people inhabiting it share a sense ofbeingmembersofaparticularnation a nation isa group of people who share commonidentitywhotypicallybelievetheyshould have a degree of autonomy withinacountryor their own separate state -refersto anational identity and howhaveanationalidentity national identity; often involves ashared language,religion,culture,history -you can also share political values,experiences and valuesasawhole can you create a national identity? in a nation like Canada where a senseofidentity isreallyloose,doingthingslikeastronger presence in international events [liketheOlympics],throughpubliceducation [turn little immigrants into little Canadians],nationalinstitutionsliketheRCMP,internationalathletic competitionslike the Olympics,nationalmyths, heroes,stories, symbols of Canadian identity -a beaver -a maple leaf -a husky,a Mounty -Hudson Bay Company -hockey -Canada goose if you see a nation stateasa positivething,itmakesyoua nationalist [promotesvalues and interestsof their particular nation,believethat people’sloyaltytothenationshould be more importantthan other loyalties] Canadian nationalism; civic nationalism refers more to abelief system over ethnicnationalism[ itsharder tobepart ofanethnic nationalism over the civic nationalismif you’renotfromthecountry] Positives of nationalism: -bringspeople together in timesofcrisis -allowsyou to stand out in an internationalsetting -you’re lesslikely to have divisionsinsociety,thuslessconflict -can keep you safe because it givesasenseofpermanent community Negatives to nationalism: -can betheroot of manyconflict and civilwars -can foster a sense of superiority,thusyoumaylookdown onother ordominate others -been usedto trample on minorityroutessometimes -extreme formsof nationalism encouragespeopletothink and focuson problemsinside their borders,makes youmore self-absorbed asanation Lecture4 Thursday,September19,2013 Good Governance 9/17/2013 6:03:00 AM Democracy gives us… - processes for how as a society things are decided -who is involved in making these choices (every citizen in this case) -how we make those choices (in a free atmosphere in a competitive nature, taking into account the ideal of majority rules, however not using this as an excuse to trample over minority interests) -what values decision making should serve more generally (i.e. equality and liberty of the person) Governance capacity of government to make and implement policy; to steer our society (essentially about performance) -also about how our government is able to identify their problems; can they identify them and solve them? -how long does it take to execute plans to solve such problems? -how good is it at actually implementing these solutions? Performance -what does the government deliver? -how does it identify and solve these problems? Process is key take into account who is solving said problem (issues can’t be solves solely by government leaders) -corporations, ngo’s, academics, citizens, experts, etc. (governance doesn’t necessarily just involve government) what do citizens expect governments to deliver? -security and political stability (you can’t have a prospering economy without this) -economic performance (job growth, GDP growth, budgets, a handle on inflation, etc. ) -public services -political freedom -social mobility -good social indicators (high education, literacy skills, etc. ) Principles of Governance According to Transparency Int. -fiscal transparency -procurement -citizen engagement -integrity- rule of law Bertelsmann Foundation Ranks Levels of Social Justice now look at; -poverty -education -non-discrimination -health of citizens -inter generational justice (i.e. social mobility) Governing atthegloballevel 9/17/2013 6:03:00 AM Thingsto Consider; What do you do at the global level in termsofgovernment? it meansthat if there’sno government therewhoorwhatat agloballevelenforceslaws? who isgoing to deter ortry to prevent countriesfrombreakingtheserules? how do you reestablish order after a lawhasbeenbroken? who maintainsthisorder? in the international system relationsliterature:anarchy -doesnot mean chaos -it refersto the lack of central authoritytoensurecompliance withnormsofconduct -meansinternationally if there isa senseofaloneness; there isno“911” youcan calltosave you from outside your own bordersofficially how do you deal with international crisislikewar? Environmentalpollution (likechina)? Currency crises? world politicsare characterized by: no entity hasentireentitlement and command,noristherean obligationtoobey. -however thingsare decided on an internationallevelthroughinternationalagreements, treaties,conventions,international laws,internationalorganizations(think UN,worldbank, etc.) (note all of these thingsare voluntary,noneofitcan beforced. Other international actorsinclude: G7 and world economic forum (conferencesinvolvingworldleadersconferringon economic crises) -red cross and international chamber of commerce (important withhumanitarianissues, playersin termsof trying to solve issuesonagloballevel) Mercenary groups(groupsof paid soldiers) non-profit:such as world wildlife fund religion; Islamic conference,large religiousgroupsand conferences financial market,global accounting firms multinational corporations; major actorsin solvingglobalissues,havea lot ofpower ona local and international level in termsofforeign investmentsand consumption Intergovernmental organizations (IGO’s) made up of different states,not citizens.Onlyarepresentativeofagovernment orstateis present -successful example: International Maritime organization (IMO) -underthe umbrella of the UN, govern thingslike: -codes of traffic on the oceans,in termsofhowgoodsaremoved back and forth -ship recycling rules; regulating the illegaldumpingofold ships ontheshoresofother nations asopposed to recycling the parts -codes for search andrescue -maritime pollution (like dumping in theocean) -smugglingand piracy -shipping of hazardous materials main issue; it isslow,takes a long time todeliberate an issue becausetherearesomany opinionsto consider. IGO’s -regional ones are moresuccessful thanglobalones (culturallytherearesimilarities,as opposed to those whodon’t.also, sincetheyall haveahand inthesameissue theymayfeel more involved andrelevant) -technical mandates aremore successfulthanbroader mandates(technologycan belesseasily disputes and more easily enforced,whereasidealsare harder toselltoabroader spectrum of people) -the support for IGO’sisdue to nationalinterestrather thanshared ideals(countriesaremore likely to support a goal if it servesitsnationalinterests) relates back to the ideaof sovereignty UN Charter -every memberreceivedonly one vote per nation -respect for each nation’ssovereignty -guarantee ofterritorialintegrity (no individualsorgroupscan crossintoyour borderswithout your permission) -respect for international obligations,(youcan’t just reapthebenefits) UN Attributes -see it asa symbolof solidarity,not just an organization -forum for global discussion -mechanism for conflict resolution (anythingtoavoidwar) -asissts countrieswith social and economicgoals (comesfrom the assumption thatat the root of most violent conflict issocio-economicissues) Security Council -purpose isto keep and restore peaceand order (notsomuchreducingconflict) -decideswhat constitutesa threat to internationalsecurity -made up of 5 members;france,USA,Russia,UK and china -decideson what the response isand enforcesit Limits to UN power -decisionsare based onnational interest(peopletakecertainperspectivesbased onthewell being it would bring to their own nation,not the worldasawhole) -decisionsare “binding”but canbe sidesteppedbycountries -callsinto question (due to the fact that theglobalcommunityhasincreased)whether ornotit should be reformed -the conflict between which nationsfund themost for the UN incomparisontotheir
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