Who hasthe ability to exercise power?
[it’s the person who has the authority]
-comes back to the ideaof authority and legitimacy
what is authority?
isthe right to exercise power that isacceptedbythe governed aslegitimate
-it also comes down to the granting ofrightsandresponsibilitiestoparticular individualsand
groupsso they can perform a communityfunction
-society isgoverned bythe idea that weaccept thatcertainpeoplewillhaveauthorityover us
-we often use uniformsto establish whether ornotsomeonecan exert authorityover us;
without thispeople on their own lack thisauthority
-thiscounts associally approved becausethemassesin generalagreetothis
-the power isn’t given to the person; rather the institution theyrepresentget thepower and
due to association to that institution theyhaveitaswell
3 types of authority:
traditional:like a king,usually in earlier history,power wasincertainindividuals,often
because of heredity or custom.
-often timesthispower went unquestioned and incontestable
-today that would be theequivalent totheroyalfamily;however thepower thereismore
symbolic asopposed to ruling
-also invested in individualsbecause ofwhotheyare,rather thangrounded intradition they
receive theauthority throughtheir charisma
-they can mobilize a population,grounded inpersonalquality
-these emerge in times of crisisor massivechange,peoplearedrawntothemfor awayfor
coping or for guidance
(think Hitler,Mussolini, etc. )
-these 2 formsof leadership are harder tofind
-replaced the other 2 formsin most cases,more commonform
-impersonal,not based on the individualor their familybackground,theirpersonality,etc.
-derived from their position; once thatposition is gonesoistheauthority
(think like a professor ora police officer) -based on the rule of lawin society, on bureaucratic,impersonalrules
-they need to win legitimacy though afair processlikean electionor atrainingprogram
-legitimacyisalso linked to the leader’sperformance; thebetter theleader performsat their
job the more legitimatethey seem thusthemorerespect theygainfromthosetheyexercise
-if the performance iscorruptthere arealwayswaystochallengethatauthority
does authority ever need to be resisted?
-uniformly decided ideal that encompasseswhatisgoodforthepoliticalcommunityorthe
population at hand asa whole
(think of thingslike law enforcing,healthcare,educationrights,ahealthyeconomy)
-the common good can often be argued bycritics
-people argue that thingslike educationand healthcarecanbeprovided bythemarket as
opposed to the government; people argue thatthe choiceshould bethereastohowmuchyou
pay for such services
-a democracy usually promotesthe commongood thebest
-people who don’t really see the idea ofthecommongoodasapositivetakean individualistic
perception;that it isour responsibility topursue our own individualneed without government
-they believe the common good can beachievedthroughindividuals,theydobelieveina
common good however
the state, nationalism and globalization
the state: an independent, self government politicalcommunitywho’sgovernment
institutionshave the ability to make rulesthatarebondingon thepopulationthatresides
within the given territory (the textbook definition)
-the state functionsbecause we give theseinstitutionsthepower togovern us
an institution that claimsthe legitimateuseofforce inenforcingitsorderwithinagiven
territorialarea (the weber definition)
-think of what happenedin Haiti,howrebelscameintopolice stationsand homesand over time beganto take overallgovernment establishments,withtheeventualgoaloftakingover
(if they were to achieve this,it would mean thestate isfallingapart)
state examples: Singapore,France,theVatican,Denmark, etc.
-note; there isno form of higher authorityoutsidethestate thanthestateitself
[no governing body cancontrolCanadaasastatemore thanCanadaitself]
historical markers; the state
the Peace of Westphalia-30year war inEurope,allabout religion.It involved certain countries
wanting to convert each other to oneor theother
-in the end the final choice wasmadebyalltheleaders; stated thatthestatesthemselvescan
make the choice of religion,no longer areason togotowar against other states.
-it nowbecame up to the ruler to make suchachoice,withnoinfluence fromother states,
The French Revolution of 1789
-before thisthe monarchhad all the power,inother wordstheFrenchking
-it wasdecided the sovereignty rested onthe handsofthepeople
Capitalism and the industrial revolution
-the huge economic change brought onsuchachangethateven amonarchcould notcontrol,
the market itself needsan infrastructure[think roadsand railways] andregulations
The difference between the state and the government?
[-note: a state isan independent structureoflawsand institutionsthatrulersareentrusted to
[a government, like parliament forexample,thatmakedecisionsand oversee their
implementation on behalf of the state ,but membersofparliament for examplechangeover
time,can be voted in orout ]
-people who exercise the authority ofthestate,however theyarenotthe state,and theycan
-the responsibilities they uphold, however [think someonein chargeoftheministryofhealth
or transportation] don’tchange
-the government isthewho [who getsitdone] and the how [the action plantoget itdone] of
-the state ismuch broader,much morepermanent what does the state include?
military and police force
various government ministries
state owned corporations(i.e. petro Canada,air Canada)
the bank of Canada
what does the state do?
[note:there isoverlap,the governmentdoessomeofthosethingstoo]
-lawand order andresolving conflicts
-support for economic activity
[we stillbuild roadsandairports,the market needsthesethingstofunction]
[they can even goasfarasusing representativesinother embassy’sinother nationstohelp
promote Canadiantradeand such]
-socialinfrastructure; healthcare, education,etc.
-environment (most nationshave this,but notall,Canadaisincluded inthis)
allstateshave the same idea of sovereignty
-2 dimensionsof sovereignty
a) the internal way a state functions,thestate isthehighest authoritywithinitsown
b) sovereignty also meansstatesarenotsubjecttotheauthorityofotheroutsiders,
meaning other nationsand their states
-thisdoesn’t mean any nation never hasan obligationtoother countries; wesign treaties
allthe time between countriesand ifbroken youhavean obligationtoreaptheretributions
why is non-intervention so important?
-it wasput in place to promote peaceessentially -however you must maintain balancebetween non-interventionandresponsibility to
people inhabiting it share a sense ofbeingmembersofaparticularnation
a nation isa group of people who share commonidentitywhotypicallybelievetheyshould
have a degree of autonomy withinacountryor their own separate state
-refersto anational identity and howhaveanationalidentity
often involves ashared language,religion,culture,history
-you can also share political values,experiences and valuesasawhole
can you create a national identity?
in a nation like Canada where a senseofidentity isreallyloose,doingthingslikeastronger
presence in international events [liketheOlympics],throughpubliceducation [turn little
immigrants into little Canadians],nationalinstitutionsliketheRCMP,internationalathletic
competitionslike the Olympics,nationalmyths, heroes,stories,
symbols of Canadian identity
-a maple leaf
-a husky,a Mounty
-Hudson Bay Company
if you see a nation stateasa positivething,itmakesyoua nationalist [promotesvalues
and interestsof their particular nation,believethat people’sloyaltytothenationshould be
more importantthan other loyalties]
Canadian nationalism; civic nationalism
refers more to abelief system over ethnicnationalism[ itsharder tobepart ofanethnic
nationalism over the civic nationalismif you’renotfromthecountry] Positives of nationalism:
-bringspeople together in timesofcrisis
-allowsyou to stand out in an internationalsetting
-you’re lesslikely to have divisionsinsociety,thuslessconflict
-can keep you safe because it givesasenseofpermanent community
Negatives to nationalism:
-can betheroot of manyconflict and civilwars
-can foster a sense of superiority,thusyoumaylookdown onother ordominate others
-been usedto trample on minorityroutessometimes
-extreme formsof nationalism encouragespeopletothink and focuson problemsinside
their borders,makes youmore self-absorbed asanation Lecture4 Thursday,September19,2013 Good Governance 9/17/2013 6:03:00 AM
Democracy gives us…
- processes for how as a society things are decided
-who is involved in making these choices (every citizen in this case)
-how we make those choices (in a free atmosphere in a competitive nature,
taking into account the ideal of majority rules, however not using this as an
excuse to trample over minority interests)
-what values decision making should serve more generally (i.e. equality and
liberty of the person)
capacity of government to make and implement policy; to steer our society
(essentially about performance)
-also about how our government is able to identify their problems; can they
identify them and solve them?
-how long does it take to execute plans to solve such problems?
-how good is it at actually implementing these solutions?
-what does the government deliver?
-how does it identify and solve these problems?
Process is key
take into account who is solving said problem (issues can’t be solves solely
by government leaders)
-corporations, ngo’s, academics, citizens, experts, etc.
(governance doesn’t necessarily just involve government)
what do citizens expect governments to deliver?
-security and political stability (you can’t have a prospering economy without
-economic performance (job growth, GDP growth, budgets, a handle on
inflation, etc. )
-political freedom -social mobility
-good social indicators (high education, literacy skills, etc. )
Principles of Governance According to Transparency Int.
-integrity- rule of law
Bertelsmann Foundation Ranks Levels of Social Justice
now look at;
-health of citizens
-inter generational justice (i.e. social mobility) Governing atthegloballevel 9/17/2013 6:03:00 AM
What do you do at the global level in termsofgovernment?
it meansthat if there’sno government therewhoorwhatat agloballevelenforceslaws?
who isgoing to deter ortry to prevent countriesfrombreakingtheserules?
how do you reestablish order after a lawhasbeenbroken? who maintainsthisorder?
in the international system relationsliterature:anarchy
-doesnot mean chaos
-it refersto the lack of central authoritytoensurecompliance withnormsofconduct
-meansinternationally if there isa senseofaloneness; there isno“911” youcan calltosave
you from outside your own bordersofficially
how do you deal with international crisislikewar? Environmentalpollution (likechina)?
world politicsare characterized by:
no entity hasentireentitlement and command,noristherean obligationtoobey.
-however thingsare decided on an internationallevelthroughinternationalagreements,
treaties,conventions,international laws,internationalorganizations(think UN,worldbank,
(note all of these thingsare voluntary,noneofitcan beforced.
Other international actorsinclude:
G7 and world economic forum (conferencesinvolvingworldleadersconferringon economic
-red cross and international chamber of commerce (important withhumanitarianissues,
playersin termsof trying to solve issuesonagloballevel)
Mercenary groups(groupsof paid soldiers)
non-profit:such as world wildlife fund
religion; Islamic conference,large religiousgroupsand conferences
financial market,global accounting firms
multinational corporations; major actorsin solvingglobalissues,havea lot ofpower ona
local and international level in termsofforeign investmentsand consumption
Intergovernmental organizations (IGO’s)
made up of different states,not citizens.Onlyarepresentativeofagovernment orstateis present
-successful example: International Maritime organization (IMO)
-underthe umbrella of the UN, govern thingslike:
-codes of traffic on the oceans,in termsofhowgoodsaremoved back and forth
-ship recycling rules; regulating the illegaldumpingofold ships ontheshoresofother nations
asopposed to recycling the parts
-codes for search andrescue
-maritime pollution (like dumping in theocean)
-shipping of hazardous materials
main issue; it isslow,takes a long time todeliberate an issue becausetherearesomany
-regional ones are moresuccessful thanglobalones (culturallytherearesimilarities,as
opposed to those whodon’t.also, sincetheyall haveahand inthesameissue theymayfeel
more involved andrelevant)
-technical mandates aremore successfulthanbroader mandates(technologycan belesseasily
disputes and more easily enforced,whereasidealsare harder toselltoabroader spectrum of
-the support for IGO’sisdue to nationalinterestrather thanshared ideals(countriesaremore
likely to support a goal if it servesitsnationalinterests)
relates back to the ideaof sovereignty
-every memberreceivedonly one vote per nation
-respect for each nation’ssovereignty
-guarantee ofterritorialintegrity (no individualsorgroupscan crossintoyour borderswithout
-respect for international obligations,(youcan’t just reapthebenefits)
-see it asa symbolof solidarity,not just an organization -forum for global discussion
-mechanism for conflict resolution (anythingtoavoidwar)
-asissts countrieswith social and economicgoals (comesfrom the assumption thatat the root
of most violent conflict issocio-economicissues)
-purpose isto keep and restore peaceand order (notsomuchreducingconflict)
-decideswhat constitutesa threat to internationalsecurity
-made up of 5 members;france,USA,Russia,UK and china
-decideson what the response isand enforcesit
Limits to UN power
-decisionsare based onnational interest(peopletakecertainperspectivesbased onthewell
being it would bring to their own nation,not the worldasawhole)
-decisionsare “binding”but canbe sidesteppedbycountries
-callsinto question (due to the fact that theglobalcommunityhasincreased)whether ornotit
should be reformed
-the conflict between which nationsfund themost for the UN incomparisontotheir