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Wilfrid Laurier University
Political Science
Laura Allan

Chapter 10 – Politics in Developing States What is development? o Economic: implies growth and industrialization of the economy (and little else) o Problems of development: (multi-dimension matter) – Society must provide more than just economic benefits to members – Citizens should be involved in the decisions that affect their future (Through group representation, direct democracy, or decentralization of power) – Governing should be less arbitrary and more rule oriented to guarantee due process of law and security of person Political/Social Development o LDC = less developed country – Low levels of per capita income, high inflation/debt, large trade deficit, lock of industrialization – Usually young states (created since end of WW2) and the retreat of colonialism, lack well-established gov’t institutions – Colonialism: exploitation of weaker country(ies) by strong one(s), for political, strategic, or resource interested o Societies seek political values (justice, order, freedom) in development – Most common value = legitimacy (of gov’t) – Democracy can achieve this, in both National/International societies – Requires overthrown of established elites and the creation of strong institutions that guarantee democratic representation – Requires the presence of liberal ideology –> to drive individuals and groups to fight for democracy – Not the cure for political problems in developing countries  Can't rectify deep social divisions, can’t guarantee justice  Can’t eliminate violence as a mean of power, or political advantages conferred by wealth  Doesn't imply stability or security  Not the best system for all societies o Commitment to democratic values = seeking peaceful resolutions to conflict before resorting to violence o Western form includes groups and minorities -> increases probability of stability and sense on community o Democracy works in Canada, US, Japan, and Europe because of the political institutions that enforce/implement principle of democracy -> I.E: – Competitive party system – Parliament/congress – elected representative may not only voice concerns, but also influence policy process – Electoral commissions – ensure elections are run according to universal rules and regulations For Democracy to Function Effectively: 1. The electoral system must function effectively – Choose a system that represents that views/interests of significant minority groups/parties – Ensure stability and a gov’t ability to pass and implement legislation 2. Free and independent media establishment (private institution) – In LDC countries = elusive goal – Gov’ts in some countries control television, radio stations, and newspapers with little competition (some there are restrictions on media content and privatization) 3. Not all political institutions are concerned with democracy – Helps consolidate gov’t consolidate its place in society – Influence the ability of the state to formulate/implement policy – Help gov’t rule – Professional/independent bureaucracy will grant the gov’t expertise needed to efficiently/effectively govern a country – Mature, rule-based egalitarian/democratic legal system will ensure equal treatment for citizens and resolve privae conflicts peacefully 4. Reliable, predictable, egalitarian, and transparent legal system is essential for legal justice -> vital element of political/social development: – Without it, the gov’t will face constant oppression from those treated unfairly by the system – Justice in LDC is focused on the respect for human rights o Human Rights: right granted to people on the basis of being human, not to be denied by gov’ts; right to life, information, economic, social, political, legal, and constitutional rights o High level of human rights abuse = country is socially/politically underdeveloped – Legal System: o Important weapon of defence against corruption o Systems benefits can’t be universally shared -> reserved for those with economics, social, or political values o No free and equal access to institutions = decrease legitimacy Challenges LDC’s Face (With regard to Social/Political Development) o Restraining the non-legitimate use of violence – Challenge for developing countries – National gov’ts fail to control territory and face significant challenges from rebel groups – Existence of rival military factions in a country may signify military weakness -> denotes lack of universal legitimacy – Same with gov’t who fail to keep public order – When there is disrespect for the rule of law (riots), gov’ts must take measures (reform or suppression) to ensure political and social system survive o Role Military in Politics: – Military not placed under strict civilian control in a states constitution, thus being restricted to a legitimate and restrained role in national affairs – Causes tendency for the military to intervene in political and social life o Developing Territorial Integrity: – Developing countries face disputes and conflicts with neighbouring states (1998 – Peru, Ecuador, 40yr dispute settled) – India/Pakistan -> region of Kashmir, both claim sovereignty – Problem arises b/c national leaders seek to consolidate their domestic power/influence by unifying the electorate and important domestic constituencies behind a national cause involving conflict with neighbouring state o Lack of Public Education: – Secondary goal in LDCs – Failure to develop effective systems of public education hinder economic development and development of mature political and social institutions – Issues surround developing public education:  Child labour very common and often necessary for families to generate enough income to survive o Lack of Health Care Services: – Modern health care systems are very expensive, >10% of GDP (Canada) – LDCs have smaller economies and tax bases, greater populations, and are in no position to provide comprehensive health care – Citizens in constant fear of ill-health -> in turn effects economy – STD’s, AIDS, insect/water borne diseases (malaria) o Lack of Gender Equality: – Developed world = great strides in gender equality in political, social, and economic spheres – In LDCs, most women earn less money for similar work ->also denied access to vote, health care, and an education – Severely hinders economic development and growth in country Economic Development o Economic development of LDC highly contentious issue – no sure path o Newly Industrializing Countries: countries that benefiting from external trade relationships, growing export markets, and burgeoning industrial development (ex. China) o 1980’s-90’s -> dominant philosophy of economic growth has been liberal – Results uncertain, future seems to be in liberal modes o Debates about wisdom and benefits of free markets, open economies, and less gov’t intervention in the economy continue to rage o Future economic development still seems to lie in liberal models, but the sustainability is in question Number of conditions must be met for economic growth to occur: 1. Economy must grow at a rate higher than the population – If population grows faster, benefits received by individual will decline o Benefits and costs of economic development should be equitable divided among society’s members Concept of Sustainability: o Sustainable development: 1990s, model of economic growth -> use renewable resources to not destroy the environment the humans live in – Doesn't compromise future generations goals – More expensive and a slow way to produce tangible gains o To be sustainable, development must: – Be steady -> progressive, produce smaller gains in short term, but greater benefits in the medium and long run (i.e. avoid cycles of boom and bust - Mexico) – Be politically sustainable -> ensure benefits of economic growth are widely dispersed and the populations experiences improvements in standards of living *Kuznets Effect: economic formula, development in economy -> as a country develops economically, income distribution will become more unequal before it become equal (Simon Kuznets – Russian-American economist) Link Between Political and Economic Development o Connection between economic liberalization and democratization – Sustainable economic growth and stability cannot be achieved without stable democratic institutions – Almost as often we hear that workable democracy cannot be achieved without first obtaining high rates of economic growth o Connection between economic development/progress and more stable democratic institution – In countries where socioeconomic inequality reaches high levels, democracy is under threat o Some argue undemocratic regimes better for reform and modernizing an LCD’s economy – Economic liberalization and reform incurs high levels of social and political costs – Some say, an autocratic or authoritarian regime is better equipped to handle the pressures arising from the costs – Ex. Augusto Pinochet’s regime in Chile -> liberalize economy -> implemented economic reforms, including currency stabilization, tariff cutting, opening Chile's markets to global trade, curbing union power, privatizing social security, and the privatization of hundreds of state-controlled industries -> increased market inequality-> harsh dictatorship has total disregard for any pressures from citizens – Such example do not seem to representative *Democracy in LDCs contributes to political/social stability, and to stability to the prospects for economic growth Population Growth o Major challenge for most developing countries (in terms of creating political, social, and economic development) o LCD’s experience doubling population every 30-35yrs -> annual growth of about 2% o If annual growth reaches 3.5%, double time speeds up to 25yrs o Huge populations and population growth put immense strain on the economic systems of LDCs o For standard of living to increase, economy must grow faster that the populations -> job, houses, education must be provided o Population control difficult/touchy subject -> many LDCs have limited methods of birth control for cultural/religious reasons – Africa/Latin America – China = successful population control, however policies were repressive and highly intrusive o Growing population = increased gov’t costs – Providing health care, public utilities (portable or clean water, electricity) – Causes massive movements of human populations -> migration -> both within country and outside -> leads to strains on gov’t services Role of International Organizations o Development in general -> concerns international aid and development organizations o International aspect of development more and more important to LCDs o Most Crucial: World Bank and IMF lending activities crucial for rescue of developing countries economies (Asia, Africa, Latin America) o Criticism of international development organizations = are they try to impose neoliberal, free-market policies on LDC gov’ts, even if they are unprepared for high levels of competition they will cause 3 Watershed Movements Watershed moment: critical turning point for country and its politics and political/social/economic development, almost everything changes 1. 1989: Fall of Berlin Wall – Destruction of wall that cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Berlin and Germany (heavily guarded) – End of Cold War – The Eastern Bloc (communist gov’t) claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany – In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration (from communist East to West Berlin) and defection that marked Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period – The fall of the berlin wall marks the “triumph” of the liberal free market model of political economic debt – Gateway to globalization 2. 2001: September 11 Attack – 3 Key Changes/Repercussions – Security: i. Jumps to the top to political agenda ii. Biggest threat is failed states: developing countries who cannot control their borders, and cannot be controlled politically (Afghanistan – Pakistan lack of border control makes it hard to track threats) by the United States (American foreign policy stance is adopted by Canada, etc.) iii. Morphed from humanitarian concern to security – Money: i. Aid sent to LDCs decreased – extra funds in developed world go towards security, therefore less for charity ii. Diversion of aid to Iraq – Perceptions (mutual) are radically changed: i. Fear on the part of Muslims -> perceived by much of developed world as a threat -> for the most part wrongfully -> US preparing to attack Afghanistan ii. Fear on the part of non-Muslims -> think they are being targeted iii. Mutual distress = difficult to co-operate internationally 3. 2008 Financial Crisis: – Cascade of economic challenges in US revolving around: i. The collapse of large financial institutions ii. The bailout of banks by national governments iii. Downturns in stock markets around the world iv. Suffering housing market (especially in the US) – Burst of housing bubble in the states – Bush called a meeting with 10 countries in the global south which he considered power houses: i. Brazil, China, South Korea, South Africa, Argentina, Mexico, Turkey, Saudi Arabia – Auto. Industry crash and bailout – Petroleum crisis i. Canada and worldwide – Cost of food rises (especially in developing world) – Link between food/oil prices: i. Food needs to get to markets -> costs money ii. Production -> running machines iii. Fertilizer is petroleum based; can’t grow to normal levels without Combination of less food being produced and increased costs to produce/transport food = huge increase in food prices Chapter 11: International Politics & Foreign policy - The study of foreign policy and relations among states and other actors at the international level - International politics similar to domestic politics o Compete in a structured environment for limit resources  Substantial inequity exists in the world - Several different types of actors(military, economic, cultural etc.) that relate to one another o Different approaches = competing approaches - Clear separation between those who have power and those who don’t - Main focus is to understand the allocation of public goods and benefits within the system and to explain the relationship among main actors International politics, relations, policy and the state - Live in a ‘global village’ o The shrinking of the world, due to modern communications, into an interconnected place where people have a closer relationship and more frequent contact o Events on one side of the world have instant repercussions on the other - Identifying ourselves with a larger community also means separating oneself from other communities o ‘Us vs. them’ mentality - International relations o Can be about any aspect of relations at the international level  Ie) Vancouver Olympic games, Toronto International film festival, NAFTA, G8 - International politics o To study the decidedly ‘political’ nature of relations at the international level - Foreign policy o The relationship states have to their external environment o Policies created to govern state relations beyond national borders  Between 2 or more actors @ international level  Essentially: the manner which individual states present themselves to the international community - The state o Most important actor in international politics o Recognized political unit – defined territory and people, central govt administration responsible for administering o Considered to be sovereign, means no other international actor can override their rights of self-determination and authority within territory o Modern sovereign o state follows the collapse of middle ages - Montesiquie: “govt should be adaptable to the needs and circumstances of the citizens. He detailed the various roles and authorities different govt institutions should have - Sovereignty o Westphalia – modern state sovereignty (the origin)  Govts were the ultimate authority within their borders, other states recognized legitimacy and external actors were not to interfere in activities of internal policies o Monopoly of power over territory, people and resources - Boundary o The state creates a boundary consisting of legal elements  Prevent external interference and reinforces internal solidarity  Define territorial extent of jurisdiction of sovereign political administrative unit – thus, legitimized by law and informal principles agreed upon by the people of society o Retain significance only if citizens find them valuable  Patriotism – important because it reinforces national territorial boundaries - Authoritarian o Form of political rule based on absolute obedience to a constituted authority  Threats and fear among citizens and groups - Totalitarian o Seek fundamental reordering of societal value and belief systems to match the wishes of the rulers The International System - Any grouping of 2 or more states that have organized and regular relations with one another o I.e.) Canada and US = NAFTA or The EU - Actors in the international system are distinguished and divided on basis of their relative power or their capabilities compared to others - Although part of sub-systemic groups, they are still individual states and don’t want to give up authority or legitimacy to global institutions – this could diminish the role of the state and state sovereignty Actors in world politics units of analysis: entities being studied in politics, ‘what’ or ‘whom’ basis of analysis - The state o Sovereignty is important in international affairs o Only states may be sovereign, given certain rights and responsibilities  i.e) able to enter formal legal treaties or wage wars with other states structural anarchy: no political authority greater than the sovereign state - International government organizations (IGO) o Institutions formed by 3 or more countries based on common purpose  i.e) UN – deal with problems that states couldn’t – international security o members of IGO’s don’t give up sovereignty in state - Non-government organization (NGO) o Groups of like-minded organizations to work together on problems of common nature, but without direct input of govt in decision making  i.e) Red Cross - Multi-national Corporation o Business organizations with activities in more than one country o Constituency is made up of shareholders or members of a board o Seek to make profit o More powerful than nation states  Ie) Exxon Mobil – more yearly sales than gross national product in countries such as Finland and Hong Kong Globalization - Intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across borders - Post war era – major shifts in world economics (trade/monetary relations) o World trade increase – thus increasing economic interdependence o Countries removed tariffs and other trade restrictions – WTO (world trade organization) - Interdependence: mutual dependence, measure dependent relationships among countries TYPES OF GLOBALIZATION Economic globalization - Process of globalization has been driven by market forces, but has been encouraged by gov’t actions - States have progressively removed barriers to the flow of goods, services, and capital across their border. The process of liberalization = increased globalization - Financial institutions moved capital across border, engaged in lending, borrowing and investment activies - MNC- profit opportunities, expand productions and sales to the international level o Link national economies - Groups of organizations/corporations have formed alliances and joint ventures to integrate national markets Social & Cultural globalization - Emergence of a sense of global society and of global norms o Individuals are increasingly associating themselves with billions of other people around the world, not just their local or national societies - Communications makes it easy to express opinions around the world o Increase of global normal and standards Political globalization - Emergence of political process that span across national borders and frequently circumvent them entirely - Implies the influences on policy-making at both national and international levels derive from many difference sources and involve actors across the globe o Ie) creation of NGO – represented in many different countries o Ie) movement towards democracy – spread throughout the developing world - Ties national governments together through common pressures - Cold war – primary influence in world politics at this time o Soviets – socialism, centralized an controlled economies, redistribute wealth in a more equitable manner o USA – economic opportunity, political freedom and international liberalism  *tension aroused after the war, but in the 1970’s two sides sought a degree of reconciliation with another*  1980- Ronald Reagan – emphasis on military build-up due to Soviet threat – resulted in cold/remote relations  1985- Gorbachev (secretary) – restructure soviet politics and economics – thus ending the “2 cold war” NIC- newly industrializing countries - Rise of new, stronger economies (used to be 3 world), liberalizing economies, strategically position themselves in international economy - Uneven progression of economies o Different levels of economic/political development - Wealthier countries more positively affected Power Politics: the realist approach - States are the primary actors, driven by a desire for economic or military powers - Distrust/self-interest = little cooperation - International system = constant condition of competition for power Kautilya: “possession of power in a great degree makes a king superior to another; less degree, inferior and in an equal degree, equal” o World politics is a contest for power – dominate the thinking of most decision makers Han Morgenthau: politics is a struggle for power o Human nature/societies are imperfect, conflict in an inherent danger o Decision makers make policies based on maximizing power and avoid policies that overstep the limits of their power Politics: the state is a key variable in the study of international politics o “the struggle for limited resources in a competitive and non-co-operative environment”  Stronger will determine rules/nature of the international system - Realism became the basic theoretical approach to international relations o “Realpolitik”  Countries should practice politics on the basis of power rather than morality - “balance of power” o States strive to achieve equilibrium of power in the world  Preven
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