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Political Science
Andrea Brown

Week 1 Third World Developing World Global South or Whats in a LabelJanuary 9 2014Whats in a LabelCountries of the Global SouthoMany argue that climate in a factor in development opportunitiesoMost also have a history of being colonizedoHigher level of instability and povertyThird WorldoPreferred label from author of textbookoMakes a distinction between western democracies and former communist countries Refers to all of the countries that are left over from these two categoriesoOrigins first emerged from the work of Alfred SauvyFrench demographerTrying to suggest that the third world like the third state of the French Revolution was a whole group of populations of people that were exploited marginalized but had within themselves a revolutionary potential Indicates what is residualwhat is left open from the first and second worldsLate 40s early 50s in the context of the cold warWestern capitalists communist bloc and all those not aligned were the third world oIt holds a lotwide open category of countries oCan be seen as positive because it highlights exploitation and power for revolutionnot just victimhoodoThere are some disadvantages of this termWhen we hear the term it can seem like it is a ranking negative connotation Connotation of backwardnessLess Developed Countries LDC or Least Less Developed Countries LLDCoMain advantage is that these categories are measurablelinked to measures of development in order to be able to monitor development over time and compare countries to one another Eg GDP literacy etcoMain disadvantage is that it is a little bit deceivingNone of these measures are entirely objectiveMany challenges of getting this information in the first place accurate continuous data is hard to achieveIn LLDC many dont have identity cards or permanent addresses etcPressures to overstate problems in a country to achieve a greater amount of aid oTerm is usually used in economic and social indicators of development with an aim to measure themDeveloping CountriesoThese countries are developingmeaning that they can move from that category of underdevelopmentHas the advantage of being optimistic and positive oIssue is what we mean by developingGoal of development should not necessarily mean to replicate western democraciesthat is seen as the end point of development but it is not what everyone has to strive for EurocentricoThis term assumes that these countries are in fact developing when they may be stagnant or even getting worstLeaves out the fact that different aspects of development can act against each other Underdeveloped CountriesoOften associated with dependency theoryoAdvantage is that the relationship is highlighted of how these countries became underdeveloped Considers how things such as colonialism international trade globalization etc caused countries to become underdeveloped and how countries are still hindered in the development process todayoDownsidetends to present poor countries as victims that dont have any agency Overstates the role of external actors in keeping countries downWhat about Brazilquite impressive developmentWhat about the NIC Newly Industrialized Economies countries Hong Kong Taiwan Singapore and KoreaUnderwent drastic development success in the 80s and 90sWhat about the BRICS countries These countries are seeing rapid and impressive economic growthFourth World CountriesoGenerally a category that captures the LLDCsoTypically African countries but also HaitioIndigenous peoples or nations which do not have a stateDevelopmentImplies a change from one state to anotherNot as simple as progress or good changeoIt can be negativeor good for some and bad for others1949 Trumans Point 4 SpeechoContext of the Cold WaroTried talking about development in reference to poverty misery and threats this posed globallyoBrought to attention what the first world could do to alleviate thisoBefore this it was mainstream to refer to developing countries as traditional or backwards Four separate but interrelated aspects of developmento1 Economic developmentPoverty Most developing countries are not industrialized production levels are lowOften very high levels of debt and inequality in distribution of income
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