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Political Science
Mark Yaniszewski

9/10/2013 8:59:00 AM Do the readings – questions midterm from readings  tutorials help What is world politics - - hegemont – most powerful state keeps the world in line – world politics is anarchic - - - „world of co-operation‟ - perspective -better to talk then to fight - states actors MNCS‟s IO NGO - wars not inevitable – can learn or prevent war through education and democracy - politics not zero sum but based on negotiation, bargaining between different actors and interests - international system may be anarchical but doesn‟t lean to war, system based on laws and rules - human nature is co-operative or at least can learn to be peaceful  not everyone wants to fight were not just self interested – World of inequality perspective - system based on groups of people with unequal power – could be classes, races, ethics groups, gender, sexuality, global north vs global south -political economy important – global capitalism - other system of inequality = patriarchy, racism, heterosexism - states and other actors (MNCSs) are seen in terms of dominant group interest (have/have-nots - conflict based on inequality global politics very broad – includes a range of many actors and institutions  has to do with power, authority and how its displaced or shared IR – is relation between states and nations What is Global Politics – mixed and fused , how levels of politics and governments ,processes relate and interact with each other - How is what happens in my house hold relatable to rest of Canada? - These levels are fused -  global politics captures the stretching of political relations across space and time and extension of political power and activity across the boundaries of the modern nation state -  processes: political, economical, social - how these are linked together - how do decisions made in one part of the world effect another part – how are the connected even in different geographical areas - - How do we know what we know? - where is the sources of information and are they all equally valuable, useful, unbiased, reliable - - Julian Assad – the wiki leaks guy  released 5 million documents how do we gather info? Gov and non gov reports -testimony, interview , eye witness accounts or personal observation official and unofficial policy documents, briefing notes, memos intelligence sources and reports survey, focus groups social networking sites, blogs twitter how do we know if its reliable? - check if website has conservative bias etc - google the author - - - 3 kinds of investigation 1 – informational – we gather facts to describe events and their development 2 – interpretive – we analyze the facts to explain why events take place. Here we use concepts and theories to organize facts and interpret what we know 3 – critical thinking – examine critically the facts and their interpretation ( political, policy implications, significance, underlying values and assumptiosn) Facts are verifiable, can be tested or observed through senses. Descriptive Opinion – explanantion of facts, narrative putting together the facts and to explain how and why an event happened . causal Question – can you write or tell about an event objectively and without bias Theory – facts have to be summarized and explained – coherent framework or logic to explain facts is theory Are facts always as objective as they seem? Can we always so easily separate facts from opinion (numbers) Realist Perspectives (power politics) 9/10/2013 8:59:00 AM Elephant Story  3 blind men don‟t know shit Theory - simplifying device allows you decide which facts matter and which do not - a scope or eyeglasses bring things into focus and other things can‟t be seen .. nobody see world as is  observation and interpretation are bound together .. theory give shape and structure to reality -generally 2 points of theories – how you see knowledge 1) knowledge used to make world better liberalism 2) point of knowledge/political science is self preservation – look out for your own interest – never mind what should be, we live in a world of what is now - being virtuous will lead to power as well will be defeated by non virtuous  Realism Problem Solving - take the world as given, seek to explain it make it work better - status-quo -positivist (scientific method), empiricist (experiences and senses) - speak to power – connected to policy making  states are the way they are, cant be changed Critical Theories - focus on not just explaining but understanding why the world is the way it is - ask how the world got to be the way it is and how we change it - world is how we make it -post positivist, constructivist - theory is always for someone and for some purpose. All theories have a perspective. Perspectives derive from the position in time and space  believes once you start talking about something you are creating meaning and you can‟t separate facts from meaning Power: zero sum and relative : one actors gains is by definition equal to the others loss, physical, resource or capabilities Realism: a school of international relations that focuses on power, security and state interests Key concepts of realism Egoism : pessimistic view of human nature : human nature is selfish, greedy, competitive States: most important actors. Operate like individuals and seek power and gain in national interest Anarchy : state of nature is one in which society is devoid of political authority and institutional checks on individuals power – transferred to the international system, the state is seen to be anarchical because there is no overarching power to keep state in check and from pursuing their own self interest RealPolitik : policy rooted in the belief that the foundation of a nations security is power and the threat of its use From Empire to states: what is an empire? Characteristics of empire - rule over exntensive body of territory of mixed populations what is an empire? - rule exercised by one nation over others both to regulate their external behavior and to ensure minimally acceptable forms of internatal fixed boundaries - rule predominantly through military. Lack developed administrative infrastructure - imperial authority overlaps with more local authority structures - tribute system different forms of more and less formal governing structure – direct control over territory while others rule through indirect forms of rule Feudalism - agricultural system of unfree labour - where serfs worked the land give any surplus product beyond what they needed for their own subsistence to the world - in exchange for the lord‟s protection Birth of the Modern State State was originally to provide protection – we pay service to state for protection - modern state has the monopoly on the right to use force Modern States and the interstate system - treaty of Westphalia 1648 - establishes principle of sovereignty and non-interference - sovereignty the notion that a political authority has ultimate control over a territorial unit : “the supremacy of authority exercised by a state over its population and territory” - international dimension of sovereignty is non-intervention by one state into another states affairs The Nation- state - the French revolution 1789 and declaration of man (sic) establishes concept of sovereignty residing in the people (nation) - within the notion of the people comes the notion of the nations as an “imagined community” of people who share culture, language history - establishes the principle of self-determination or the idea that cohesive national groups, or “people” have the right to choose their own form of political organization, free of external domination, usually understood as independent statehood, though sometimes with other forms of aunomy within another state - the principle of sovereignty and self-determination can be at odds and can lead to the creation of new states Randal L scweller - - realist seek autonomy – they don‟t want mutual dependence, todays friend may be tomorrows enemy - never enough power - see world as tragedy and evil , best you can hope for is choosing the lesser evil - only
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