PS101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Suggestibility, Hypnotic Induction, Sleep Deprivation

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29 Nov 2012
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October 25th, 2012
Psychology Lecture #11
CONSCIOUSNESS
Sleep and the environment
- Everyone knows the environment affects sleep
Effects of environment factors
- Changes in season
- Shiftwork, stress
- Noise
- Increase arousal and heart rate
- Decrease time in deep slow-wave sleep
- Increase time in less restful sleep
Sleep and age
- Sleep less
- REM sleep decreases during infancy, childhood
- Time in stages 3, 4 (slow-wave sleep) declines
Short and long sleepers
- Many individual differences in sleep time
- Genes more similar patterns among identical twins, (lark-fast increase in body temperature
owl-slow increase in body temperature), long and short sleepers (average required 6.5 hours, 6-
10)
- Environmental factors time of day, lifestyle
Sleep deprivation
- Types of sleep deprivation
- Short-term (up to 45 hours without sleep)
- Long-term (more than 45 hours)
- Partial (no more than 5 hours/night for 1 or more consecutive nights)
Negative impact on functioning
- Mood suffered most (irritable)
- Followed by decrements in cognitive and physical performance
Underestimated negative effects
- Takes several nights to recover
- DO NOT make up all sleep time lost
- REM rebound to make up
Dreams
- Small number in NREM
- Almost all dreams are in REM vivid, emotional, story like, can be bizarre
What do we dream about?
- Fears, wishes, plans hopes and worries the things we focus on while awake
- Common themes (Canadian student survey) chased, sex, falling, teachers/studying, arriving
too late, trying to do something repeatedly, someone dies, falling
Dreams
- No agreed-upon theory
- Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory wish fulfillment, gratification of unconscious desires/needs
(sexual and aggressive urges)
Two important concepts (Freud)
- Manifest content “surface” story of dream
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