PS101 Lecture Notes - Behaviorism, Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Wundt
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Michael Matthews September 15, 2011
Psychology Lecture #2
Exam September 29th
Animism- Every physical object also contains a spirit in addition to the physical state of the being.
These spirits may be negative or positive or good and evil. (exorcism)
Animism predates Plato and Aristotle, and we have to give credit to that.
Plato used rationalism, knowing the world through reasoning
Aristotle began the idea of empiricism, which means know our world through observation and
The influence of these early roots still exists today.
Wundt spent a long time in the hospital so he had a long time to examine his mind, ultimately leading to the
creation of the first school of psychology and initial structuralism.
Describe your experience through an introspective way, by looking into something or yourself.
Functionalism- Looking at the function of the mind. What is the mind for? With Darwin’s new discoveries,
they thought the minds main job was to adjusting and adapt to a variety of environments.
William James: Claimed as one of the early psychologists who helped developed the school of
functionalism. This led to IQ testing to see if particular minds are more adaptable.
James talked about a stream of consciousness, which gets separated to an almost alternated personality.
We are aware of what we are doing constantly are believed. These are simply formal schools of
In the 1900’s, a man named John Watson argued that functionalism is a joke, but rather we have an over
behaviour. It is a waste of time trying to look into the mind. Lead to more knowledge of solving
behavioural issues such as depression.
Skinner also said this was a joke, and that you are the product of your environment. Figured that he could
answer questions about people by their actions and reactions and even have the ability to create anything
you want by training. These behaviours and types of people are mostly made by how they are rewarded.
Aristotle also believed in studying observable events.
Skinner believed that you can use the same learning principles that are used on animals such as rats.
Gestalt- found that our brains like to view things as a whole by instinct. We desperately need to keep things
whole. We should not divide people or divide people, but rather see them as a whole person. Our brains
perceive whole patterns, not your reinforcement history. Argued that closure is incredibly important. As
Humans we need completeness. Pg. 144-148 we tend to perceive patterns.
Psychoanalysis was established by Sigmund Freud. This has found greater roots in contemporary society
than and other pieces of thought. Problem with this is that it is a form of therapeutic intervention.
Emphasised the unconscious was tied heavily with sexual energies.
The third force is the humanistic. They argued that what happened today that rather than reducing humans,
we need to build them up and make them whole. A completely scientific approach to psychology has
robbed us of our humanity. People are spontaneous and very unique creatures. In reality, there will only
ever be one of you. They also believed that you have an internal locus of self-control. You are free to make
important choices, and you are responsible for those particular choices.
External locus is giving credit for outside things to why things happen. They reject the idea of
depersonalizing people as a whole. Nothing is more important than meaning in life. Life has no meaning in
itself except for the meaning we endow it with. We are specifically special because we as a people,
continue to do the tough things we do in a heroic fashion.
Functionalism- William James Behaviourism- Watson, Skinner Gestalt Psychoanalysis- Sigmund Freud
Bio psychosocial model- The bio can influence the psychological, and the psychological can affect the bio.