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Lecture

Chapter 15 Notes Notes on chapter 15 in point form


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS101
Professor
Eileen Wood

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Psychology Study Notes: Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
By: Yen Hoang
The Elements of the Treatment Process:
Freud is widely credited with launching modern psychotherapy
Treatments: How Many Types Are There?
o Insight Therapies:
Insight therapy is “talk therapy” in the tradition of Freud’s psychoanalysis
Clients engage in complex verbal interactions with their therapists
The goal of these discussions is to pursue increased insight
regarding the nature of the client’s difficulties and to sort through
possible solutions
It can be conducted with an individual or with a group
Broadly speaking, family therapy and marital therapy fall in this category
o Behavior Therapies:
They are based on the principles of learning
Instead of emphasizing personal insights, behavior therapists make direct
efforts to alter problematic responses and maladaptive habits
Behavior therapists work on changing clients’ over behaviours
They use different procedures for different kinds of problems
o Most of their procedures involve classical conditioning,
operant conditioning or observational learning
o Biomedical Therapies:
Biomedical approaches to therapy involve interventions into a person’s
biological functioning
The most widely used procedures are drug therapy and electroconvulsive
(shock) therapy
These treatments have traditionally been provided only be physicians with
a medical degree (usually psychiatrists)
Clients: Who Seeks Therapy? :
o The two most common presenting problems are excessive anxiety and depression
o People often delay for many years before finally seeking treatment for their
psychological problems
o A client in treatment does not necessarily have an identifiable psychological
disorder
Some people seek professional help for everyday problems or vague
feelings of discontent
Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment? :
o Psychotherapy refers to professional treatment by someone with special training
o Psychologists:
Two types of psychologists may provide therapy:
Clinical psychologists’ training emphasizes the treatment of full-
fledged disorders
Counseling psychologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment
of psychological disorders and everyday behavior problems

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In practice, there’s quite a bit of overlap between clinical and
counseling psychologists in training, skills and the clientele that
they serve
Both types of psychologists must earn a doctoral degree (Ph.D,
Psy.D or Ed.D)
o A doctorate in psychology requires about 5 to 7 years of
training beyond a bachelor’s degree
In providing therapy, psychologists use either insight or behavioural
approaches
They do psychological testing as well as psychotherapy and many also
conduct research
o Psychiatrists:
Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment
of psychological disorders
Many also treat everyday behavioural problems
They devote more time to relatively severe disorders
(schizophrenia, mood disorders) and less time to everyday marital,
family, job and school problems
They have a M.D degree
o Graduate training requires 4 years of course work in
medical school and a 4 year apprenticeship in a residency at
a hospital
Psychotherapy training occurs during their
residency, since the required course work in
medical school is essentially the same for everyone
They increasingly emphasize drug therapies which the other
nonmedical helping professions cannot provide
They are more likely to use psychoanalysis and less likely to use
group therapies or behavior therapies
Contemporary psychiatrists primarily depend on medication as
their principal mode of treatment
o Other Mental Health Professionals:
Clinical social workers and psychiatric nurses often work as part of a
treatment team with a psychologist or psychiatrist
Psychiatric nurses who may have a bachelor’s or master’s degree
in their field, play a large role in hospital inpatient treatment
Clinical social workers generally have a master’s degree and
typically work with patients and their families to ease the patient’s
integration back into the community
Many kinds of counselors also provide therapeutic services
They are usually found working on schools, colleges and assorted
human service agencies
They typically have a master’s degree
They often specialize in particular types of problems, such as
vocational counseling, marital counseling, rehabilitation
counseling and drug counseling

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Insight Therapies:
Insight therapies involved verbal interactions intended to enhance clients’ self knowledge
and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior
Psychoanalysis:
o Psychoanalysis is an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious
conflicts, motives and defences through techniques such as free association and
transference
o Probing the Unconscious:
The therapist relies on two techniques:
In free association, client’s spontaneously express their thoughts
and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as
possible
o Clients expound on anything that comes to mind, regardless
of how trivial, silly or embarrassing it may be
o Gradually, most clients begin to let everything pour out
without conscious censorship
The analyst studies these free associations for clues
about what is going on in the client’s unconscious
In dream analysis, the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of
the client’s dreams
o Freud saw dreams as the “royal road to the unconscious”,
the most direct means of access to patients’ innermost
conflicts, wishes and impulses
o Clients are encouraged and trained to remember their
dreams which they describe in therapy
The therapist then analyzes the symbolism in these
dreams to interpret their meaning
o Interpretation:
Interpretation refers to the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner
significance of the client’s thoughts, feelings, memories and behaviours
Analysts do not interpret everything and they generally don’t try to
dazzle clients with startling revelations
o Instead, they move forward inch by inch offering
interpretations that should be just out of the client’s own
reach
o Resistance:
Resistance refers to largely unconscious defensive manoeuvres intended to
hinder the progress of therapy
Why would clients try to resist the helping process?
o Because they don’t want to face up to the painful,
disturbing conflicts that they have buried in their
unconscious
o Although they have sought help, they are reluctant to
confront their real problems
It can take many forms
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