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Lecture 2

PS 101 Lecture 2: PS101Chapter1part2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS101
Professor
Don Morgenson
Lecture
2

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SigmundFreud’sApproach:TheUnconscious
Freudaidspeoplewithpsychologicalproblemssuchasirrationalfears,obsessionsandanxieties
withaninnovativeprocedure.Hecalleditpsychoanalysis.Hisworkandhisown
selfexplorationspersuadedFreudoftheexistenceofwhathecalledtheunconscious.
Theunconsciouscontainsthoughts,memories,anddesiresthatareunderthesurfaceof
consciousawarenessbutarestillagreatinfluenceonbehaviour.
PsychoanalyticTheory:
● Arguesthatpsychologicaldisturbancesarelargelycausedbypersonalconflictsexisting
atanunconsciouslevel.
● Explainspersonality,motivationandmentaldisordersbyfocusingonunconscious
determinantsofbehaviour.
● Inferredthatalargepartofbehaviourisinfluencedbyhowpeoplecopewithsexual
urges.
● Madethedisconcertingandhighlycontroversialsuggestionthatpeoplearenotmastersof
theirownminds.
PsychoanalyticTheorywasnotmetwithgreatacceptanceimmediatelybutsurvivedtobecome
aninfluentialtheoreticalperspective.
SkinnerQuestionsFreeWillasBehaviourismFlourishes
B.F.Skinnerdevelopedsystembasedonhisownphilosophyofradicalbehaviourism.
● Doesn’tdenyexistenceofinternal,mentaleventsbutnotedtheyaremuchmoredifficult
tostudyandmuchofhisownscienceofbehaviourisbasedonobservableevents.
Skinner’sFundamentalPrincipleofBehaviour:
● Organismstendtorepeatresponsesthatleadtopositiveoutcomes,andtendtonotrepeat
responsesthatleadtoneutralornegativeoutcomes.
o Demonstratedthisonanimalsbymanipulatingoutcomesoftheirresponses,by
traininganimalstoperformunnaturalbehaviours.
● Assertedthatallbehaviourisfullygovernedbyexternalstimuli.
AccordingtoSkinner,peoplearecontrolledbytheirenvironment,notbythemselves.Inshort,he
concludedthatfreewillisanillusion.
TheHumanistsRevolt:
Bythe1950’s,psychoanalytictheoryandbehaviourismwerethemostinfluentialschoolsof
thoughtinpsychology.
Humanistsclaimedthatbothschoolswere“dehumanizing”.
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