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Lecture 4

PS 101 Lecture 4: PS101Chapter2part1


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS101
Professor
Don Morgenson
Lecture
4

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Chapter2
TheResearchEnterpriseinPsychology
ScientificApproachtoBehaviour
1) Measurementanddescription
Mustbeabletomeasurethephenomenonunderstudy.
Musthaveamethodofmeasuringanddescribingbehaviourclearlyandprecisely.
2) Understandingandprediction
Onegoalisunderstanding.
oAneventisunderstoodwhenonecanexplainoccurrenceoftheevent.
Toevaluatetheirunderstanding,theymakeandtestpredictionswhichiscalled
hypotheses.
o Ahypothesisisatentativestatementabouttherelationshipbetweentwoor
morevariables.Variablesareanymeasureableconditions,events,
characteristics,orbehavioursthatarecontrolledorobservedinastudy.
3) ApplicationandControl
Onceaphenomenonisunderstood,morecontrolcanbeexertedoverit.
Atheoryisinterrelatedideasusedtoexplainobservations.
Ascientifictheorymustbetestable.Mosttheoriesaretoocomplextobetestedallatonce,for
examplethereisevolutionarytheory.
StepsinaScientificInvestigation
1) FormulateaTestableHypothesis
● Scientifichypothesesmustbeformulatedpreciselyandthevariablesunderstudy
mustbedefinedwithoperationaldefinitions.
● Anoperationaldefinitionestablisheswhatismeantbyeachvariableinthecontext
ofthestudy.
2) SelecttheResearchMethodandDesigntheStudy
● Howtheexperimentputsthehypothesistoanempiricaltest.
3) CollecttheData
● Researchersuseavarietyofdatacollectiontechniques
4) AnalyzetheDataandDrawConclusions
● Theobservationsareconvertedintonumbers.Researchersusestatisticstoanalyze
theirdataanddecidewhethertheirhypotheseshavebeensupported.
5) ReporttheFindings
● Thepublicationoftheresearchresultsisfundamentaltothescientificenterprise.
● Prepareareportthatisdeliveredatascientificmeetingandsubmittedtoajournal
forpublication.
● AJournalisaperiodicalthatpublishestechnicalandscholarlymaterial,usuallyin
anarrowlydefinedareaofinquiry.
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