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Lecture 10

PS102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Stereotype Threat, Flynn Effect, Heritability

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Erin Strahan

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Video: 6 people have come together who are completely different to see who is the most intelligent out them all.
Genes are a big part of intelligence
One of them doesn’t have as much brain matter as some high IQ college students. He doesn’t use as much brain
matter but solutions to problems come automatically
Definition of intelligence: Problem-solving ability, abstract thinking, bodily kinesthetic, emotional intelligence, and
having a wide range abilities.(There is a discussion on whether intelligence is based on one construct or a wide range of
different constructs)
The Structure of Intelligence
General factor (‘g’): A common factor representing abstract reasoning power that underlies a wide variety of test
Specific factor (‘s’): A mental ability factor that is unique to a task.
If one were trying to remember numbers, G would mostly be used, and some of s.
Multiple Intelligences (verbal linguistic, bodily kinesthetic, musical rhythmic, intrapersonal, naturalistic, logical-
mathematic interpersonal, and visual spatial)
Emotional Intelligence: ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason
with emotion and regulate emotion (they understand others and themselves very well, they don’t let emotions judge their
decisions; it doesn’t get in the way. Those who do not have this, aren’t able to deal well with emotions they’re having)
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Intelligence is made up of three interacting components:
1. Analytical (internal processes when we think about something: abstract thinking, analyzing things)
Most related to traditional IQ tests.
2. Creative (external) (ability to generate new idea)
3. Practical (experiential: ability to use the things we learn in every day context. E.g.: are you able to fix this
table even though you never have before?)
Helps us to adapt to our environment
Measuring Intelligence
Binet believed we should measure a child’s mental age. Mental age: level of how a child performs intellectually,
compared to the average intellectual performance for that physical age. (He did this by studying intelligent
children in the public school system)
Binet and Simon developed a test which measured memory, vocabulary, and perceptual discrimination
Mental age was divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 to get a IQ or intelligent quotient score
Now IQ scores are derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests
Once you get to a certain age you cant use this method anymore. There isn’t a big difference between 25 and 25
year olds.
Measuring Intelligence NOW:
IQ scores are distributed “normally”
Bell-shaped curve (most people score within the middle or mean)
Very high and low scores are rare
68% of people have IQ between 85-115
99.7% between 55-145
These tests have to be:
Consistency of scores derived from a test from one time and place to another (The test that you’re given has to
show consistency, the numbers can’t be different with the same person taking it)
Test-retest reliability: give the same test twice to the same people and compare the two sets of scores
Alternate-forms reliability: give different versions of the same test to the same group on separate occasions
(measuring the same tests but different questions in some way)
The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure (in psychology we try to study things that are
really hard to study, you have to develop good measures of certain constructs.) In validity you have to make sure
you are measuring what you wanted to measure in the first place; create a scale that measures the construct you
are trying to measure.
Content validity: degree to which the content of a test accurately represents what the test is intended to measure
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