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Lecture 11

PS102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: New Letters, Autonomic Nervous System, Antibody

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Erin Strahan

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Motivation and Emotion: Chapter 11
Motivation: an internal state or condition that directs behaviour; goal-directed
Motivation Theories
Instinct Theory: people are motivated by their biological (innate) instincts
Instincts: inborn behavioural tendencies, activated by stimuli in our environments
o E.g., newborn reflexes, maternal protection, need to belong
Drive Reduction Theory: When external factors alter our body’s normal state of equilibrium, we are
motivated to behave in ways that restore the balance (homeostasis)
Motivation Theories
Arousal Theory: We are motivated to pursue an optimum level of stimulation (arousal)
o Some motivated behaviours increase arousal
o Some motivated behaviours decrease arousal
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Yerkes-Dodson Law: law stating that ideal performance on a task occurs when the arousal level is
optimized to the difficulty level of the task
Motivation Theories
Incentive Theory
An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour
Extrinsic motivation: The pursuit of an activity for external rewards such as money or fame
Intrinsic motivation: The pursuit of activity for its own sake
What Happens in the Brain
Brain regions associated with dopamine release are activated during a pleasurable experience and direct
future behaviour
Dopamine pathway: ventral tegmental area nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex
Multiple Motivations: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs
o Hunger, thirst, air, sleep
o Most basic and demanding needs must be satisfied before we can move up the hierarchy
o Deficiency need
The Hierarchy of Needs
Safety Needs
o Security, stability, protection, structure, order
o Allows a sense of predictability
o Reduces feelings of chaos, fear and danger
o Deficiency need
The Hierarchy of Needs
Belongingness and Love Needs
o Friendship, love, family, intimate relationship, identification with a group
o If not satisfied, we feel lonely, alone and empty
The Hierarchy of Needs
Esteem Needs
o Self-Esteem: Need to perceived oneself as competent/achieving
o Recognition: Need for admiration and respect from others
o If not fulfilled, we feel
o Discouraged and inferior
o Deficiency need
The Hierarchy of Needs
o Focus on developing ourselves
o Few people reach this stage
o Growth Need
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Summary of Motivation Theories
Range and Diversity of Human Motives
The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Biological Factors
Environmental factors
Eating Disorders
Biological Factors
Brain signals:
Arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus contains 2 groups of neurons
1) Sensitive to incoming hunger signals
2) Sensitive to satiety signals
Hormonal regulation:
Insulin: secretion of insulin associated with increased hunger
Leptin: when leptin levels are high, we feel less hungry
Hunger depends on complex interactions between neural circuits, neurotransmitter systems, digestive
processes and hormonal fluctuations
Heaviness is not always caused by overeating
Body Weight Set point
o A weight that individuals typically return to even after dieting or overeating
Identical twins are more similar in body weight than fraternal
o Same whether raised together or apart
Genetic factors play a large role in body weight
Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
Food Availability and Related Cues
A. Palatability: people eat more when food tastes good
B. Quantity Available: people eat more when portions are bigger
C. Variety: people eat more when there are more varieties of food available
D. Presence of others: people eat 44% more with others than alone; larger the crowd, more people eat
o With one caveat: women eat less in front of men they don’t know very well
Obesity: an excessive accumulation of body fat, usually defined as a body mass index of greater than 30
Obesity Rates
1 in every 4 Canadians is obese
Over the past 20 years, prevalence of obesity has increased over 2.5 times
1 in every 3 Americans is obese
Obesity Rates
Childhood Obesity in Canada
In 1970: 5% of Canadian children were obese
In 2012: 12% of Canadian children were obese
In 2013: 13% of Canadian children are obese
o Another 20% of children are considered overweight
Overweight children are very likely to become overweight adults
Weight and Prevalence of Disease
Causes of Obesity: Genetic Predisposition
Causes of Obesity: Evolutionary Perspective
In the past, our ancestors had limited access to food
Body evolved to store fat to prepare for food storages
But, we now have access to delicious, high-calorie food
Our bodies are not made for eating processed foods. (Food that is not in its natural state, and has
artificial ingredients in it.) Have a shorter shelf life. Whole foods are not processed.
The Environment and Obesity
Environmental factors related to weight gain:
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