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Lecture

Chapter 6 – Learning.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Mindi Foster

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Description
Chapter 6 – Learning Classical Conditioning:  learning whereby a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response previously evoked by another stimulus o First noticed by Pavlov and his dogs o Learning by associating 2 things (or more…) o Examples  Television  Eat These are learned associations  Brian’s house  fear Step 1:  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning o A natural reflex, naturally causes something else  Unconditioned response (UCR): an unlearned to a UCS that occurs without previous conditioning o This is a reflex o Dogs going on walks (Stimulus)  Excitement (Response) Step 2  Pair a neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus  several trials o Ex. Leash + walk  excitement o TV + hunger  eat o Brian’s house + puppy  fear Step 3  Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that becomes able to evoke a conditioned response. o NS  CS and UCR  CR because of the pairing  Conditioned Response (CR): a learned reaction to the CS Applications of Classical Conditioning  Phobias o NS (mouse) + UCS (bell)  fear  Advertising o Popular song (USC)  positive emotion ( UCR) o + Product  Physiological Reactions o Taste Aversion (the CS leads to the negative response) o Drugs (the CS leads to craving) o Sexual Response (the CS leads to sexual desires)  Negative, Positive reactions to medical treatment o UCS (pills)  UCR (feel better) o + NS (Doctor) Processes in Classical Conditioning  Stimulus contiguity o Stimulus must be paired in time  Best is NS immediately proceeds the unconditioned stimulus o Ex. Leash (NS)  Walk (UCS)  Excitement (UCR)  Extinction: Graduate weakening, disappearance of the CR o Via unpairing of UCS, CS o Ex. Hunger (UCS) + TV (CS)  Eat (UCR) want to extinguish this by unpairing hunger with the television  Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure  Stimulus Generalization: Responding in the same way to a new stimulus as to an original stimulus o Works best on similar stimuli o Ex. Albert’s fury stimuli  Stimulus Discrimination: responding differently to a new stimulus than to an original stimulus despite similarity o Less similar the stimuli, the easier the discrimination o To teach this, you have to pair one stimulus with the UCS but not the other stimulus  Higher Order conditioning o A new association made but not with the UCS but with something that is already conditioned Operant Conditioning  Learning, whereby response are controlled by their consequences; consequences increase or decrease the likelihood of behaviour  learning by consequences Consequences of Behaviour  Reinforcer: increases the likelihood of behaviour o Something that increases our behaviour  Punishment: decreases the likelihood of behaviour o Something that weakens the behaviour Labeling Reinforcers, Punishers  does it end (neg) or being (pos); consequence? Increase ( reinforce) or Decrease (punisher)  Good Stuff begins  something positive, the consequence is an increase in the behaviour; Positive Reinforcer  Good stuff ends  negative; Negative Punishment; ex. Taking away keys, reducing attention  Bad stuff begins  something beginning is positive, the consequence is a decrease in the behaviour; Positive Punishment  Bad stuff ends  take away something aversive , Negative Reinforcement  Primary Reinforcers/punishers o Things inherently effect our behaviour (nautally) o Satisfies so
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