Class Notes (890,019)
CA (532,534)
WLU (19,205)
PS (2,991)
PS102 (654)

Chapter 6 – Learning.docx

5 Pages

Course Code
Mindi Foster

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Chapter 6 – Learning Classical Conditioning:  learning whereby a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response previously evoked by another stimulus o First noticed by Pavlov and his dogs o Learning by associating 2 things (or more…) o Examples  Television  Eat These are learned associations  Brian’s house  fear Step 1:  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning o A natural reflex, naturally causes something else  Unconditioned response (UCR): an unlearned to a UCS that occurs without previous conditioning o This is a reflex o Dogs going on walks (Stimulus)  Excitement (Response) Step 2  Pair a neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus  several trials o Ex. Leash + walk  excitement o TV + hunger  eat o Brian’s house + puppy  fear Step 3  Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that becomes able to evoke a conditioned response. o NS  CS and UCR  CR because of the pairing  Conditioned Response (CR): a learned reaction to the CS Applications of Classical Conditioning  Phobias o NS (mouse) + UCS (bell)  fear  Advertising o Popular song (USC)  positive emotion ( UCR) o + Product  Physiological Reactions o Taste Aversion (the CS leads to the negative response) o Drugs (the CS leads to craving) o Sexual Response (the CS leads to sexual desires)  Negative, Positive reactions to medical treatment o UCS (pills)  UCR (feel better) o + NS (Doctor) Processes in Classical Conditioning  Stimulus contiguity o Stimulus must be paired in time  Best is NS immediately proceeds the unconditioned stimulus o Ex. Leash (NS)  Walk (UCS)  Excitement (UCR)  Extinction: Graduate weakening, disappearance of the CR o Via unpairing of UCS, CS o Ex. Hunger (UCS) + TV (CS)  Eat (UCR) want to extinguish this by unpairing hunger with the television  Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure  Stimulus Generalization: Responding in the same way to a new stimulus as to an original stimulus o Works best on similar stimuli o Ex. Albert’s fury stimuli  Stimulus Discrimination: responding differently to a new stimulus than to an original stimulus despite similarity o Less similar the stimuli, the easier the discrimination o To teach this, you have to pair one stimulus with the UCS but not the other stimulus  Higher Order conditioning o A new association made but not with the UCS but with something that is already conditioned Operant Conditioning  Learning, whereby response are controlled by their consequences; consequences increase or decrease the likelihood of behaviour  learning by consequences Consequences of Behaviour  Reinforcer: increases the likelihood of behaviour o Something that increases our behaviour  Punishment: decreases the likelihood of behaviour o Something that weakens the behaviour Labeling Reinforcers, Punishers  does it end (neg) or being (pos); consequence? Increase ( reinforce) or Decrease (punisher)  Good Stuff begins  something positive, the consequence is an increase in the behaviour; Positive Reinforcer  Good stuff ends  negative; Negative Punishment; ex. Taking away keys, reducing attention  Bad stuff begins  something beginning is positive, the consequence is a decrease in the behaviour; Positive Punishment  Bad stuff ends  take away something aversive , Negative Reinforcement  Primary Reinforcers/punishers o Things inherently effect our behaviour (nautally) o Satisfies so
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.