PS102 Lecture Notes - Preposition And Postposition, Partial Trace, Dieselisation

26 views17 pages
13 Feb 2014
Introduction to Psychology II
Lecture One
-Process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in behaviour or capabilities
(knowing how)
2 perspectives for understanding how learning occurs:
-Focused on how organisms learn
-Examined processes by which experience influences behaviour
-Discovered laws of learning that apply virtually all organisms
-Treated organism as tabula rasa (blank slate) no other things have been learned before, we start
-Explained learning solely in terms of directly observable events
-Avoided unobservable “mental states”
Respondent Conditioning (Classical/Pavolian Conditioning)
Based on internal responses to naturally occurring stimuli (sucking on a
lemon and natural response is to get saliva or when in heat, muscles
naturally relax)
Some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit a response in us
When we pair things that don’t have a value, or have a different value
with these naturally occurring pairings, the “value free” or “differently
valued” item will come to take on the new meaning
Can take things that didn’t startle you before & make them startle you
with training (velvet drapes)
Four Important Terms
UCS = unconditioned stimulus
-Stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate, unconditioned response without prior learning (lemon)
UCR = unconditioned response
-Reflexive or innate response elicited by the UCS without prior learning (sucker face after lemon)
CS = conditioned stimulus
-Stimulus that through association with the UCS, comes to elicit a conditioned response similar to
the original UCR (ex. training you with a sound to do something)
CR = conditioned response
-Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Sugar produces smile, lip licking for babies
Sugar  smile, lip licking
Lemon  “pucker”
Looking at Bridges – Wobbly Bridges – Feeling Nauseous
Types of CS-UCS pairings
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Forward short-delay
-CS (tone) still present when food (UCS) presented
-Optimal learning
Forward trace
-CS appears & then goes off
-Best if delay if no more than 2-3 seconds
-Presented at same time
-Slower learning
-Presented afterward
-Little learning
Operant conditioning aka Skinnerian or instrumental conditioning ethology
Lecture Two
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
-Process in which CS is presented in absence of UCS
-Causes CR to weaken and eventually disappear
Spontaneous Recovery
-Could be a good or bad thing
-After a rest period, and without any new learning trails, the reappearance of a previously
extinguished CR
-Usually weaker than initial CR, extinguishes more rapidly
Generalization and Discrimination
-Stimuli similar to initial CS elicit a CR
-Aids in survival
-CR occurs to one stimulus but not to another
-Ex. a fire alarm vs. someones watch
High Order Conditioning
Chain of events which has 2 CS stimuli
Expands influence of classical conditioning on behaviour
Variables Affecting Respondent Conditioning
Response Dominance
-Refers to the relative strengths of responses elicited by the CS and UCS before they are
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
-Best results when UCS is stronger
-Systematic dieselization: based on a hierarchy what makes you least and most fearful
Non Gradual
-Real events
-Imagine events
Classical/Respondent/Pavlovian Conditioning Influences Many Things
Positive, negative attitudes
-Both of above used in advertising
Conditioned aversions
-Dislike a certain food/drink because you became sick?
Anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV)
-Common among cancer patients
Operant Conditioning
Difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning
-Behaviour changes due to association of two stimuli (CS-UCS) presented prior to the
response (CR)
-Behaviour changes as a result of consequences that follow it
Operant Conditioning
Learning through consequences
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
-Response followed by a “satisfying” consequence becomes more likely to occur
-Response followed by an “unsatisfying” consequence becomes less likely to occur
Skinnerian, Instrumental
-Assumes that behaviours are voluntary, under our control
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.