PS102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Catatonia, Bipolar Disorder, Dissociative Disorder

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14 Aug 2016
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Psychology – Lecture 20
Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders
What causes depression?
- Cognitive processes
o Learned helplessness theory
§ Depression occurs when people expect that bad events will
occur and they think that they can’t cope with them
- Learning and environmental factor
o Loss of reinforcement
o Depression occurs
o Causes loss of social support
o Deeper depression
- Environmental factors
o Poor parenting
o Many stressful experiences
o Failure to develop good coping skills
o Failure to develop positive self - concept
Bipolar disorder
- A condition in which patients experience two radically different
moods
o Extreme highs (“manic episodes” or “mania”) – temporarily lose
touch with reality; optimism is not just irrational; it is delusional
o Extreme lows (“major depression”), usually with relatively normal
periods in between.
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- No external cause for ups and downs
- Duration within a mood can be several months
Disorders:
- Anxiety disorders
- Somatoform disorders
- Mood disorders
Dissociative disorders
- Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
- Personality disorders
Schizophrenia
- Once called “dementia praecox”
o Latin for “out of one’s mind before one’s time”
- Schizophrenia = split mind (not split personality
Symptoms of schizophrenia
- Must have two or more symptoms
- Paranoid type
o Delusions
o Hallucinations
- Disorganized or catatonic type
o Disorganized speech
o Disorganised or catatonic behaviour
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