PS102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Stimulant Psychosis, Hallucinogen, Peyote

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14 Aug 2016
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Psychology – Lecture 13
Chapter 5 - States of consciousness
1. Depressants
- Decrease nervous system activity
- Moderate doses
o Reduce feelings of anxiety; produce euphoria
- High doses
o Slow vital life processes
o Can be fatal
Depressants – Alcohol
- Nervous system depressants
o Initial upper phase then brain centres become depressed
- Increases activity of GABA (main inhibitory neurotransmitter à
anxiety control)
o Increase of GABA à decreases brain activity
- Decreases activity of glutamate (major excitatory neurotransmitter)
- Combination creates “high” and the “down” phase
Sedatives: Barbiturates and tranquilizers
- E.g., sleeping pills and anti – anxiety drugs
- Depress nervous system
o Increase activity of GABA
- Highly addictive
o Several months needed to lose physiological dependency
2. Stimulants
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- Increase neural firing and arouse central nervous system
o Increase blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, alertness
o E.g., amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy
o Boost mood, produce euphoria and heightened irritability
- Amphetamines
o Increases dopamine and norepinephrine
o Continuous heavy use can produce amphetamine psychosis
- Ecstasy (MDMA)
o Produce feelings of pleasure, elation, empathy, warmth
o Interferes with serotonin reuptake (and dopamine) à more
serotonin and dopamine remain in the synaptic gap
- Cocaine (coco shrub)
o Increases activity of norepinephrine, dopamine by blocking
reuptake
o Produce briefer high (e.g., buoyant, elated, energetic with
increased alertness) than amphetamines
- Chronic use associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment,
brain damage
3. Narcotic – Opiates
- Opium à product of poppy plant
o Morphine, codeine, heroin derived from opium à opiates
- Bind to receptors activated by endorphins
o Provide pain relief
o Cause mood changes, include euphoria
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