PS268 Lecture Notes - Muscular Development, Acne Vulgaris, Anxiety Disorder

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31 Jan 2013
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Week Ten Performance Enhancing Drugs
You want to win an Olympic medal, so you train very, very hard
But while you‟re training, you see people doing things on the side to improve their performance:
they
-get a personal trainer/coach
go to summer sport camps
eat all the best foods
train at the most up to date gym
moved to another city (or even country)
take all the right supplements
But you can‟t, because…
-no extra money
-logistics
-your genes suck
-etc
So those who can do these things are they getting an unfair advantage?
----only wealthiest can figure skate
--you‟ve got the best coaches, attend all the right camps, eat the best food, have the best gym
membership etc
--But while you‟re training, you see people doing things on the side to improve their
performance they take steroids
But you can‟t, because…
Steroids are cheating
So those who use steroids are they getting an unfair advantage?
Two questions asked to aspiring Olympians:
If you were offered a banned performance-enhancing substance that guaranteed that you would
win an Olympic medal and you would not get caught, would yyou take it?
Laurier - 25%
High level athlete 195/198 said Yes
Sports and Drugs
Goldman study (1994)
Two questions asked to aspiring Olympians: Question #2:
“Would you take a banned performance-enhancing drug with a guarantee that you will not be
caught, you will win every competition for the next 5 years, but will then die from adverse
effects of the substance?”
50% said yes
Mark McGwire before and after
-1998
70 home runs
MLB record
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Barry Bonds before and after BALCO
2001
73 home runs
MLB record
-put on weight
-increased hat size by two sizes
-testicles shrunk
Arnold Schwarzenegger steroids
Football Players
Lyle Alzado
Shawne Merriman
Highlights from the history of drug use in sports
1950s
Russian weightlifters begin to markedly outperform their US counterparts
Later 1950s
US Olympic physician teams with chemists to create Dianabol
1956
Steroid use becomes the norm in modern Olympic Games steroids dubbed “the breakfast of
champions”
1960s
Steroid use banned by the IOC but no testing
The fastest men on Earth, ever.
100 metre sprint times under 9.80 seconds:
1988 Ben Johnson confirmed steroids
9.79 seconds
1999 Maurice Greene
9.79 seconds clean but… admitted to buying steroids (for fellow
athletes) his couach was part of the BALCO scandal
2002 Tim Montgomery confirmed steroids
9.78 seconds
2006 Justin Gatlin confirmed steroids
9.77 seconds
2007 Asafa Powell clean
9.74 seconds
2009 Usain Bolt clean
9.58 seconds
LAURIER STEROIDS
Perception 10%
<<1%
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Anabolic-androgenic steroids
Androgenic
acting to promote masculinizing changes in the body
-more facial hair, deeper voice, more manlier
Anabolic
acting to promote growth and muscular development
-tissue growth, BIGGER
Anabolic-androgenic steroids
a group of drugs patterned after the testosterone molecule, producing anabolic and androgenic
effects
Anabolic steroids
a shortened name for anabolic-androgenic steroids
Steroids
Physical effects of natural testosterone
Androgenic effects (masculinzing)
-growth of penis (no scientific evidence)
average adult length = 13.3cm, SD = 1.7 cm (about 5 inches)
-deepening of the voice
-increased facial hair
Anabolic effects tissue building
-increased protein synthesis
-increased muscle mass
-control of the distribution of body fat
-increased calcium in the bones
Routes of administration for anabolic steroids
Oral comes out of body a few weeks
Intramuscular (i.m.) injection lasts several months, half a year
if competing in something, off season, intramuscular, oral during season and wean themselves
off
Legitimate medical uses of steroids
Weight gain in the malnourished or sick
Promotes recovery from muscle injury
Stimulates growth spurts in children with pituitary problems
Source of testosterone in males with testicular cancer
According to the textbooks...
Do steroids improve athletic performance?
Mixed and controversial research findings
-Testosterone builds muscle mass and strength during puberty
-Animal studies: Synthetic anabolic steroids build muscle in castrated animals
-Unclear if giving additional anabolic steroids to adolescent or adult males who already
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