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Lecture

Chapter 11 Reading Notes.odt


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS268
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay

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READING NOTES
Chapter 11:
CAFFEINE
Caffeine: The World's Most Common Psychostimulant
Caffeine belongs to the xanthine biochemical family
Includes theophylline, found in tea and theobromine, found in chocolate
Coffee
Kaldi had taken the first human coffee trip after discovering that his goats had been
consuming it, making them dance, leap and roll about on the ground
Coffee houses began appearing in England
They developed into “penny universities” where for a penny a cup, people could
listen to and learn from most of the great literary and political figures of the period
Virtually all coffee is make from two species:
Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta
Arabica beans have a milder flavour, take longer to develop after planting, and
require a near-tropical climate to grow properly
Robusta beans have a stronger and bitterer flavour and a higher caffeine content,
and they are used primarily in less-expensive blends and to make instant coffee
There are several ways of removing caffeine from the coffee bean
Unroasted beans are soaked in an organic solvent (raises concerns about residues of
the solvent remaining in the coffee)
The most widely used solvent is methylene chloride
The Swiss water process removes more of the coffee's flavour
The caffeine that is taken out is used mostly in soft drinks
To be a coffee drinker was to be a Tory
Tea
Coffee was the first to arrive so tea was usually sold in coffee houses
To be a tea drinker was to be loyal to the Crown
Tea starts its life high in the mountains on a three-metre bush
In one day, a plucker will pluck enough tea to sell in a grocery story
Plucking is done every 6 to 10 days in warm weather as new growth develops on
many branches
The leaves are dried, rolled to crunch the cells in the leaf, and place in a cool, damp
place for fermentation (oxidization) to occur
Oxidization turns the green leaves to a bright copper (black tea)
Non-oxidized leaves are packaged and sold as green tea
Tea contains a chemical, theophylline (“divine lead”) only present in very small,
nonphamacological amounts in the beverage
A xanthine found in tea
It is effective at relaxing the bronchial passages and is prescribed for use by
asthmatics
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Chocolate
Chocolat before we know it today was flavoured with vanilla, was a thick liquid and
was sometimes frothy and had to eaten with a spoon
Until 1829, all chocolate sold was relatively indigestible
The procedure to prepare chocolate was done by letting pods dry in the sun, then
roasting them before removing the husks to get to the kernel of the plant
The result of grinding the kernels is a thick liquid called chocolate liquor
This is baking chocolate
A Dutch patent was issued for the manufacture of “chocolate powder” by removing
about two- thirds of fat from the chocolate liquor
The unique xanthine in chocolate is theobromine
Other Sources of Caffeine
Soft Drinks
Coca-Cola started out as a green nerve tonic that did not sell well at all to selling almost
3 billion cases a year
Pemberton's green nerve tonic in the late 19th century contained caramel, fruit
flavouring, phosphoric acid, caffeine, and a secret mixture called Merchandise No 5.
The name Coca-Cola originally conceived to indicate the nature of two ingredients with
tonic properties:
Coca leaves and cola (kola) nuts
Energy Drinks
Jolt cola was the first energy drink to hit the market in 1985
The original marketers of Red Bull seemed to aim their product at people who exercise
and want to “build” their bodies by including some ingredients found in dietary
supplements
e.g.) Amino acid taurine
Because Red Bull has become a popular mixer for alcohol, there have been concerns
that taurine might intensify alcohol's effect
Careful animal studies have found no interaction between taurine and the
behavioural effects of alcohol
Over-the-Counter Drugs
Prescription drugs that contain caffeine:
Kaizen
Wake-Ups
Pep-Back Peak Performance
Anacin
Exedrin
Midol
Diurex (Ultra)
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