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Ch.11 Mood Disorders Section includes: Necessary conditions for clinical diagnosis Symptoms of Depression and Mania Incidence, Prevalence, and Course Comorbidity Classification of Mood Disorders (Depressive Disorders, Bipolar Disorders) Sy

Course Code
Kathy Foxall

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Mood disorders
Most people have times when they feel unhappy about some aspect of their lives
It is common for people to say that they are “really depressed,” when what they
mean is that they are sad or worried about something
This topic includes depressive disorders and bipolar disorders
Will start with depression
Effects sleep, appetite and motor behaviour
Necessary conditions for clinical diagnosis
1) Interference
Depression interferes with ability to function in work, school, and relationships
Some people may continue to work or attend school, but their performance
2) Range of symptoms
Affects feelings and behaviour such as sleep, appetite, motor movement
Symptoms of Depression and Mania
In some cultures, depression may be experienced largely in somatic or bodily
complaints, rather than in sadness or guilt
The core symptoms of a major depressive episode are the same for children and
adolescents, although the prominence of characteristic symptoms may change
with age
Symptoms of Depression
Affective Symptoms – core symptoms
Mood down, sad most of the time, every day for 2 weeks or more OR
Loss of interest or pleasure in things that used to enjoy most of the time, every
Feelings of worthlessness, guilt
Anxiety common
Excessive and prolonged mourning
oSevere incapacitating depression rarely continues beyond the first three
Wild weeping may occur as a general reaction to frustration or anger
Cognitive Symptoms
Pessimistic thinking
Loss of motivation
Work and household chores seems like a great effort
Feelings of incompetence
Put self down
Thoughts of death in general and/or suicide
Difficulty concentrating*
The suicide risk of depressed persons is at least eight times higher than that of the
general population
A cognitive triad develops with negative views of the self, of the outside world,
and of the future
Behavioural Symptoms
Low activity/energy level
Social withdrawal, lowered productivity
Poor grooming
Psychomotor retardation - reduced speech, slower movements
Some are agitated, restless
Exhibit anhedonia, or a loss in the capacity to derive pleasure from normally
pleasant experiences
Physiological Symptoms
Loss of appetite, weight changes
Sleep difficulties; insomnia, especially early morning awakenings, or
hypersomnia (sleeping too much)
Women may have longer menstrual cycles, may skip period(s)
oThe volume of menstrual flow may decrease
Decreased libido
Memory difficulties
Brain changes over time
In severe depression, weight loss can become life threatening
Incidence, Prevalence, and Course
In Canada
Prevalence estimated to be about 5% (% of population that is currently depressed)
Two times higher in females than in males
In US, lifetime prevalence 15% for males, 24% for females
May be higher in males – self report
Many people have multiple episodes of depression
50% for 2nd after first episode
o70% after a 2nd for a 3rd
o90% after 3 episodes
Depression is often untreated
Many people are worried about stigma
People may come to believe that this is just the way they are, nothing to be done
about it
May feel that they should be able to get better on their own
Many believe that this disorder is due to not having enough willpower
Some people have GAD in combination with depression