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Lecture 18

PS287 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Rape Culture, Gender Role

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Nicky Newton

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Week 9. Sex Differences in Health
November 13, 2017
3:51 PM
Theme: definitive sex differences in mortality and morbidity, with multiple possible explanations
Sex differences in Mortality
Mortality rates = death rate
Life span
o Women outlive men in U.S by approximately 5 years
o Recent years: sex gap in mortality has narrowed
o Sex gap varies by country
o Men die younger than women throughout life span
Sex diff in mortality bigger between 15-24 + 25-34
Many ways of reporting sex differences in mortality
Causes of death (graph):
o Suicide rate higher for men
o Alzheimer's rate higher for women
WHY difference in mortality?
Male more risk taking: accidents
Men possibly higher rate in less safe jobs (chemicals, professional risks) : diff at old age
Women tend to care more about their health earlier : 5 year differences at old age
Suicide: more pressure for men from other men, work, family
Alzheimer's : women live longer for it to progress
Leading causes of Mortality (death)
Heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory disease, and accidents
Lifestyle factors play a role in all causes
Men more likely than women to die of most of the leading causes of death
Men more likely to commit/be victims of violent crimes, including homicide (65% of both)
Women more likely than men to be killed by someone they know
Sex differences in Morbidity (Disease)
Morbidity = illness or disease
People living longer, but with disease
Women and chronic illness: long lasting, can be fatal or nonfatal
Women have higher morbidity rates than men, starting at adolescence
Women perceive own health to be worse
Women also report more illness behaviour
o Restrict activity due to illness
o More likely to seek medical care
Six Classes of Explanation of Sex Differences
Health Behaviours(best explanations for sex differences in mortality but limited for morbidity)
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